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The human nasal microbiota and Staphylococcus aureus carriage.

Frank DN, Feazel LM, Bessesen MT, Price CS, Janoff EN, Pace NR - PLoS ONE (2010)

Bottom Line: Moreover, within the inpatient population S. aureus colonization was negatively correlated with the abundances of several microbial groups, including S. epidermidis (p = 0.004).The nares environment is colonized by a temporally stable microbiota that is distinct from other regions of the integument.Negative association between S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and other groups suggests microbial competition during colonization of the nares, a finding that could be exploited to limit S. aureus colonization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Colonization of humans with Staphylococcus aureus is a critical prerequisite of subsequent clinical infection of the skin, blood, lung, heart and other deep tissues. S. aureus persistently or intermittently colonizes the nares of approximately 50% of healthy adults, whereas approximately 50% of the general population is rarely or never colonized by this pathogen. Because microbial consortia within the nasal cavity may be an important determinant of S. aureus colonization we determined the composition and dynamics of the nasal microbiota and correlated specific microorganisms with S. aureus colonization.

Methodology/principal findings: Nasal specimens were collected longitudinally from five healthy adults and a cross-section of hospitalized patients (26 S. aureus carriers and 16 non-carriers). Culture-independent analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that the nasal microbiota of healthy subjects consists primarily of members of the phylum Actinobacteria (e.g., Propionibacterium spp. and Corynebacterium spp.), with proportionally less representation of other phyla, including Firmicutes (e.g., Staphylococcus spp.) and Proteobacteria (e.g. Enterobacter spp). In contrast, inpatient nasal microbiotas were enriched in S. aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis and diminished in several actinobacterial groups, most notably Propionibacterium acnes. Moreover, within the inpatient population S. aureus colonization was negatively correlated with the abundances of several microbial groups, including S. epidermidis (p = 0.004).

Conclusions/significance: The nares environment is colonized by a temporally stable microbiota that is distinct from other regions of the integument. Negative association between S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and other groups suggests microbial competition during colonization of the nares, a finding that could be exploited to limit S. aureus colonization.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Similarities between microbiotas determined longitudinally for healthy adults.Morisita-Horn Community Similarity Indices (CMH) were calculated for each pairwise combination of samples and plotted as a heatmap that compares all values. Color gradient denotes CMH values, which range from 0.0 (no similarity between communities) to 1.0 (identical communities). Ax: Axilla samples. Grn: Groin samples. Nar: Nares samples.
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pone-0010598-g002: Similarities between microbiotas determined longitudinally for healthy adults.Morisita-Horn Community Similarity Indices (CMH) were calculated for each pairwise combination of samples and plotted as a heatmap that compares all values. Color gradient denotes CMH values, which range from 0.0 (no similarity between communities) to 1.0 (identical communities). Ax: Axilla samples. Grn: Groin samples. Nar: Nares samples.

Mentions: Although the precise distributions of species-level microbial groups differed from specimen to specimen, consistent patterns of microbial taxa were observed over time within each individual and anatomical location (Fig. 1, Fig. 2). For instance, all of the longitudinal groin specimens from Subject A were dominated by corynebacterial species (e.g. C. mucifaciens, C. minutissiumum) that were not present, or much less abundant, in the axilla and nares samples of Subject A, including specimens collected on the same day. Similarly, sequences representative of Propionibacterium acnes were prevalent in the longitudinal nares samples of all subjects, but were observed far less frequently in axilla and groin swabs. Staphylococcus epidermidis was prevalent in the nares and axilla specimens, but not the groin, whereas S. aureus was observed only in the nares of two individuals. Specimens collected at the same time point from the left and right nares of the same individual did not differ appreciably in community composition relative to one another (Fig. 1), therefore these sequences were pooled for subsequent analyses.


The human nasal microbiota and Staphylococcus aureus carriage.

Frank DN, Feazel LM, Bessesen MT, Price CS, Janoff EN, Pace NR - PLoS ONE (2010)

Similarities between microbiotas determined longitudinally for healthy adults.Morisita-Horn Community Similarity Indices (CMH) were calculated for each pairwise combination of samples and plotted as a heatmap that compares all values. Color gradient denotes CMH values, which range from 0.0 (no similarity between communities) to 1.0 (identical communities). Ax: Axilla samples. Grn: Groin samples. Nar: Nares samples.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2871794&req=5

pone-0010598-g002: Similarities between microbiotas determined longitudinally for healthy adults.Morisita-Horn Community Similarity Indices (CMH) were calculated for each pairwise combination of samples and plotted as a heatmap that compares all values. Color gradient denotes CMH values, which range from 0.0 (no similarity between communities) to 1.0 (identical communities). Ax: Axilla samples. Grn: Groin samples. Nar: Nares samples.
Mentions: Although the precise distributions of species-level microbial groups differed from specimen to specimen, consistent patterns of microbial taxa were observed over time within each individual and anatomical location (Fig. 1, Fig. 2). For instance, all of the longitudinal groin specimens from Subject A were dominated by corynebacterial species (e.g. C. mucifaciens, C. minutissiumum) that were not present, or much less abundant, in the axilla and nares samples of Subject A, including specimens collected on the same day. Similarly, sequences representative of Propionibacterium acnes were prevalent in the longitudinal nares samples of all subjects, but were observed far less frequently in axilla and groin swabs. Staphylococcus epidermidis was prevalent in the nares and axilla specimens, but not the groin, whereas S. aureus was observed only in the nares of two individuals. Specimens collected at the same time point from the left and right nares of the same individual did not differ appreciably in community composition relative to one another (Fig. 1), therefore these sequences were pooled for subsequent analyses.

Bottom Line: Moreover, within the inpatient population S. aureus colonization was negatively correlated with the abundances of several microbial groups, including S. epidermidis (p = 0.004).The nares environment is colonized by a temporally stable microbiota that is distinct from other regions of the integument.Negative association between S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and other groups suggests microbial competition during colonization of the nares, a finding that could be exploited to limit S. aureus colonization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Colonization of humans with Staphylococcus aureus is a critical prerequisite of subsequent clinical infection of the skin, blood, lung, heart and other deep tissues. S. aureus persistently or intermittently colonizes the nares of approximately 50% of healthy adults, whereas approximately 50% of the general population is rarely or never colonized by this pathogen. Because microbial consortia within the nasal cavity may be an important determinant of S. aureus colonization we determined the composition and dynamics of the nasal microbiota and correlated specific microorganisms with S. aureus colonization.

Methodology/principal findings: Nasal specimens were collected longitudinally from five healthy adults and a cross-section of hospitalized patients (26 S. aureus carriers and 16 non-carriers). Culture-independent analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that the nasal microbiota of healthy subjects consists primarily of members of the phylum Actinobacteria (e.g., Propionibacterium spp. and Corynebacterium spp.), with proportionally less representation of other phyla, including Firmicutes (e.g., Staphylococcus spp.) and Proteobacteria (e.g. Enterobacter spp). In contrast, inpatient nasal microbiotas were enriched in S. aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis and diminished in several actinobacterial groups, most notably Propionibacterium acnes. Moreover, within the inpatient population S. aureus colonization was negatively correlated with the abundances of several microbial groups, including S. epidermidis (p = 0.004).

Conclusions/significance: The nares environment is colonized by a temporally stable microbiota that is distinct from other regions of the integument. Negative association between S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and other groups suggests microbial competition during colonization of the nares, a finding that could be exploited to limit S. aureus colonization.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus