Limits...
Apical polarity in three-dimensional culture systems: where to now?

Inman JL, Bissell MJ - J. Biol. (2010)

Bottom Line: Delineation of the mechanisms that establish and maintain the polarity of epithelial tissues is essential to understanding morphogenesis, tissue specificity and cancer.Three-dimensional culture assays provide a useful platform for dissecting these processes but, as discussed in a recent study in BMC Biology on the culture of mammary gland epithelial cells, multiple parameters that influence the model must be taken into account.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Division of Life Sciences, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

ABSTRACT
Delineation of the mechanisms that establish and maintain the polarity of epithelial tissues is essential to understanding morphogenesis, tissue specificity and cancer. Three-dimensional culture assays provide a useful platform for dissecting these processes but, as discussed in a recent study in BMC Biology on the culture of mammary gland epithelial cells, multiple parameters that influence the model must be taken into account.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Architecture and morphology of the mammary gland. (a) A cartoon representation of the structure of the epithelial tissue of the human mammary gland indicating a large duct branching into a lobule. (b) A representation of a cross section cut through the bilayered epithelia: many bilaryered acini that are part of the lobule would be apparent yet their direct connection to the lobule 'disappears' in the 2D cross section. (c) A magnified cross section of the terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU) referred to as an acinus. Acinar polarity is demonstrated where apical proteins face the lumen formed by luminal epithelial cells and the basement membrane (BM) is in contact with myoepithelial cells (d) S1 cultured cells form a single layered acinus-like structure in 3D culture with apico-basal polarity despite the lack of the myoepithelial layer.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2871524&req=5

Figure 1: Architecture and morphology of the mammary gland. (a) A cartoon representation of the structure of the epithelial tissue of the human mammary gland indicating a large duct branching into a lobule. (b) A representation of a cross section cut through the bilayered epithelia: many bilaryered acini that are part of the lobule would be apparent yet their direct connection to the lobule 'disappears' in the 2D cross section. (c) A magnified cross section of the terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU) referred to as an acinus. Acinar polarity is demonstrated where apical proteins face the lumen formed by luminal epithelial cells and the basement membrane (BM) is in contact with myoepithelial cells (d) S1 cultured cells form a single layered acinus-like structure in 3D culture with apico-basal polarity despite the lack of the myoepithelial layer.

Mentions: Control of context - defined here as the microenvironment and architecture of a cell culture - is essential to both the design and the interpretation of experiments performed in three-dimensional (3D) culture. In these cultures, multiple microenvironmental parameters, such as cellular and tissue stiffness, composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and media (a substitute for lymph and blood), and cell-cell interactions, operate as they do in vivo and profoundly affect function (see Lelièvre and Bissell [2] for a comprehensive review of the importance of context in 3D cultures). We know that tissue architecture can be approximated in 3D culture; in particular we have succeeded in recreating the milk-producing mammary glandular epithelium and polar acini - the ductal tree - of the human breast in culture (for a discussion of why it is preferable to use 'in culture' rather than 'in vitro' see [1]) (Figure 1). We also know that signaling pathways in 3D cultures are regulated in a fundamentally different way than in cells cultured on tissue culture plastic (referred to as 2D culture) [3]. Finally, there is substantial evidence that disruption of tissue architecture is a prerequisite to malignancy [4,5]. Thus, we must be concerned about the structural elements of the model system that are crucial for functional integrity.


Apical polarity in three-dimensional culture systems: where to now?

Inman JL, Bissell MJ - J. Biol. (2010)

Architecture and morphology of the mammary gland. (a) A cartoon representation of the structure of the epithelial tissue of the human mammary gland indicating a large duct branching into a lobule. (b) A representation of a cross section cut through the bilayered epithelia: many bilaryered acini that are part of the lobule would be apparent yet their direct connection to the lobule 'disappears' in the 2D cross section. (c) A magnified cross section of the terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU) referred to as an acinus. Acinar polarity is demonstrated where apical proteins face the lumen formed by luminal epithelial cells and the basement membrane (BM) is in contact with myoepithelial cells (d) S1 cultured cells form a single layered acinus-like structure in 3D culture with apico-basal polarity despite the lack of the myoepithelial layer.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2871524&req=5

Figure 1: Architecture and morphology of the mammary gland. (a) A cartoon representation of the structure of the epithelial tissue of the human mammary gland indicating a large duct branching into a lobule. (b) A representation of a cross section cut through the bilayered epithelia: many bilaryered acini that are part of the lobule would be apparent yet their direct connection to the lobule 'disappears' in the 2D cross section. (c) A magnified cross section of the terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU) referred to as an acinus. Acinar polarity is demonstrated where apical proteins face the lumen formed by luminal epithelial cells and the basement membrane (BM) is in contact with myoepithelial cells (d) S1 cultured cells form a single layered acinus-like structure in 3D culture with apico-basal polarity despite the lack of the myoepithelial layer.
Mentions: Control of context - defined here as the microenvironment and architecture of a cell culture - is essential to both the design and the interpretation of experiments performed in three-dimensional (3D) culture. In these cultures, multiple microenvironmental parameters, such as cellular and tissue stiffness, composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and media (a substitute for lymph and blood), and cell-cell interactions, operate as they do in vivo and profoundly affect function (see Lelièvre and Bissell [2] for a comprehensive review of the importance of context in 3D cultures). We know that tissue architecture can be approximated in 3D culture; in particular we have succeeded in recreating the milk-producing mammary glandular epithelium and polar acini - the ductal tree - of the human breast in culture (for a discussion of why it is preferable to use 'in culture' rather than 'in vitro' see [1]) (Figure 1). We also know that signaling pathways in 3D cultures are regulated in a fundamentally different way than in cells cultured on tissue culture plastic (referred to as 2D culture) [3]. Finally, there is substantial evidence that disruption of tissue architecture is a prerequisite to malignancy [4,5]. Thus, we must be concerned about the structural elements of the model system that are crucial for functional integrity.

Bottom Line: Delineation of the mechanisms that establish and maintain the polarity of epithelial tissues is essential to understanding morphogenesis, tissue specificity and cancer.Three-dimensional culture assays provide a useful platform for dissecting these processes but, as discussed in a recent study in BMC Biology on the culture of mammary gland epithelial cells, multiple parameters that influence the model must be taken into account.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Division of Life Sciences, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

ABSTRACT
Delineation of the mechanisms that establish and maintain the polarity of epithelial tissues is essential to understanding morphogenesis, tissue specificity and cancer. Three-dimensional culture assays provide a useful platform for dissecting these processes but, as discussed in a recent study in BMC Biology on the culture of mammary gland epithelial cells, multiple parameters that influence the model must be taken into account.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus