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Role of late maternal thyroid hormones in cerebral cortex development: an experimental model for human prematurity.

Berbel P, Navarro D, Ausó E, Varea E, Rodríguez AE, Ballesta JJ, Salinas M, Flores E, Faura CC, de Escobar GM - Cereb. Cortex (2009)

Bottom Line: At P40, heterotopic neurons were found in the subcortical white matter and in the hippocampal stratum oriens and alveus.LMH pups showed delayed learning in parallel to decreased phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2) expression in the hippocampus.In conclusion, maternal THs are still essential for normal offspring's neurodevelopment even after onset of fetal thyroid function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Neurociencias, Universidad Miguel Hernández and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Sant Joan d'Alacant, Alicante, Spain. pere.berbel@umh.es

ABSTRACT
Hypothyroxinemia affects 35-50% of neonates born prematurely (12% of births) and increases their risk of suffering neurodevelopmental alterations. We have developed an animal model to study the role of maternal thyroid hormones (THs) at the end of gestation on offspring's cerebral maturation. Pregnant rats were surgically thyroidectomized at embryonic day (E) 16 and infused with calcitonin and parathormone (late maternal hypothyroidism [LMH] rats). After birth, pups were nursed by normal rats. Pups born to LMH dams, thyroxine treated from E17 to postnatal day (P) 0, were also studied. In developing LMH pups, the cortical lamination was abnormal. At P40, heterotopic neurons were found in the subcortical white matter and in the hippocampal stratum oriens and alveus. The Zn-positive area of the stratum oriens of hippocampal CA3 was decreased by 41.5% showing altered mossy fibers' organization. LMH pups showed delayed learning in parallel to decreased phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2) expression in the hippocampus. Thyroxine treatment of LMH dams reverted abnormalities. In conclusion, maternal THs are still essential for normal offspring's neurodevelopment even after onset of fetal thyroid function. Our data suggest that thyroxine treatment of premature neonates should be attempted to compensate for the interruption of the maternal supply.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

PLP/DM20 in situ hybridization showing the distribution of oligodendrocytes both in the parietal cortex (A, B) and hippocampus (C, D) in control and LMH pups at P40. (E) Histogram showing the percentages of PLP/DM20-labeled cells in control and LMH pups. No statistically significant differences (n.s.) were found between normal and LMH pups (n = 6 for each group) in the different layers and white matter (wm).
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fig8: PLP/DM20 in situ hybridization showing the distribution of oligodendrocytes both in the parietal cortex (A, B) and hippocampus (C, D) in control and LMH pups at P40. (E) Histogram showing the percentages of PLP/DM20-labeled cells in control and LMH pups. No statistically significant differences (n.s.) were found between normal and LMH pups (n = 6 for each group) in the different layers and white matter (wm).

Mentions: At P40, the radial distribution of PLP/DM20-labeled cells in the cortex and hippocampus of LMH pups was similar to that of C pups (Fig. 8A–D). No statically significant differences were found between LMH and C rats in the percentage of labeled cells among cortical layers (Fig. 8E).


Role of late maternal thyroid hormones in cerebral cortex development: an experimental model for human prematurity.

Berbel P, Navarro D, Ausó E, Varea E, Rodríguez AE, Ballesta JJ, Salinas M, Flores E, Faura CC, de Escobar GM - Cereb. Cortex (2009)

PLP/DM20 in situ hybridization showing the distribution of oligodendrocytes both in the parietal cortex (A, B) and hippocampus (C, D) in control and LMH pups at P40. (E) Histogram showing the percentages of PLP/DM20-labeled cells in control and LMH pups. No statistically significant differences (n.s.) were found between normal and LMH pups (n = 6 for each group) in the different layers and white matter (wm).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2871377&req=5

fig8: PLP/DM20 in situ hybridization showing the distribution of oligodendrocytes both in the parietal cortex (A, B) and hippocampus (C, D) in control and LMH pups at P40. (E) Histogram showing the percentages of PLP/DM20-labeled cells in control and LMH pups. No statistically significant differences (n.s.) were found between normal and LMH pups (n = 6 for each group) in the different layers and white matter (wm).
Mentions: At P40, the radial distribution of PLP/DM20-labeled cells in the cortex and hippocampus of LMH pups was similar to that of C pups (Fig. 8A–D). No statically significant differences were found between LMH and C rats in the percentage of labeled cells among cortical layers (Fig. 8E).

Bottom Line: At P40, heterotopic neurons were found in the subcortical white matter and in the hippocampal stratum oriens and alveus.LMH pups showed delayed learning in parallel to decreased phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2) expression in the hippocampus.In conclusion, maternal THs are still essential for normal offspring's neurodevelopment even after onset of fetal thyroid function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Neurociencias, Universidad Miguel Hernández and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Sant Joan d'Alacant, Alicante, Spain. pere.berbel@umh.es

ABSTRACT
Hypothyroxinemia affects 35-50% of neonates born prematurely (12% of births) and increases their risk of suffering neurodevelopmental alterations. We have developed an animal model to study the role of maternal thyroid hormones (THs) at the end of gestation on offspring's cerebral maturation. Pregnant rats were surgically thyroidectomized at embryonic day (E) 16 and infused with calcitonin and parathormone (late maternal hypothyroidism [LMH] rats). After birth, pups were nursed by normal rats. Pups born to LMH dams, thyroxine treated from E17 to postnatal day (P) 0, were also studied. In developing LMH pups, the cortical lamination was abnormal. At P40, heterotopic neurons were found in the subcortical white matter and in the hippocampal stratum oriens and alveus. The Zn-positive area of the stratum oriens of hippocampal CA3 was decreased by 41.5% showing altered mossy fibers' organization. LMH pups showed delayed learning in parallel to decreased phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2) expression in the hippocampus. Thyroxine treatment of LMH dams reverted abnormalities. In conclusion, maternal THs are still essential for normal offspring's neurodevelopment even after onset of fetal thyroid function. Our data suggest that thyroxine treatment of premature neonates should be attempted to compensate for the interruption of the maternal supply.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus