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Reducing HIV risks among active injection drug and crack users: the safety counts program.

Rotheram-Borus MJ, Rhodes F, Desmond K, Weiss RE - AIDS Behav (2009)

Bottom Line: The more sessions of Safety Counts attended, the greater were the reductions in risky acts.Different analytic decisions result in very different findings for the same intervention.Analytic decision of intervention outcomes is highly related to evaluations of an intervention's efficacy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for HIV Identification, Prevention, and Treatment Services, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Rotheram@ucla.edu

ABSTRACT
The efficacy of Safety Counts, a CDC-diffused intervention, was reanalyzed. In a quasi experimental, cross-over design, injection drug users (IDU) and crack users in two neighborhoods were assigned by neighborhood to receive individual Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing or Safety Counts and 78% were reassessed at 5-9 months. Drug users in the Safety Counts program reported significantly greater reductions in risky sex, crack and hard drug use, and risky drug injection. The more sessions of Safety Counts attended, the greater were the reductions in risky acts. Different analytic decisions result in very different findings for the same intervention. Safety Counts is an effective intervention for IDU and crack users. Analytic decision of intervention outcomes is highly related to evaluations of an intervention's efficacy.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Study design assignment by neighborhood, with crossover. Each site (neighborhood) comprised three contiguous ZIP codes. Participants enrolled in Phase 2 are new to the study (cross-over is by neighborhood, not individual)
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Fig1: Study design assignment by neighborhood, with crossover. Each site (neighborhood) comprised three contiguous ZIP codes. Participants enrolled in Phase 2 are new to the study (cross-over is by neighborhood, not individual)

Mentions: Seventeen ZIP codes were identified, within the greater Los Angeles, California metropolitan area, that were anticipated to be similar in ethnic composition and socioeconomic status. The ZIP codes were expected to have many drug users based on having high rates of drug-related deaths, arrests, arrestees with positive drug screening cases of HIV and AIDS, drug-related emergency room admissions and drug intake data and sexually transmitted diseases. From government data sets and existing research projects ongoing in the 17 ZIP codes, two sets of three contiguous ZIP codes were identified that were similar in the number of anticipated drug users and in the types of drugs being used (details available upon request). Each site consisted of about 50,000 households of about the same size, age, and ethnicity. Table 1 describes the demographics of the two sites. After Site A and Site B were identified, the sites were randomly assigned to receive either the VCT or the Safety Counts intervention in the first phase of the study. In the second phase, each site received the alternative intervention condition. Figure 1 outlines the recruitment and assignment to intervention condition that took place in Sites A and B over the 3.5 years of the study, during 1992–1995.Table 1


Reducing HIV risks among active injection drug and crack users: the safety counts program.

Rotheram-Borus MJ, Rhodes F, Desmond K, Weiss RE - AIDS Behav (2009)

Study design assignment by neighborhood, with crossover. Each site (neighborhood) comprised three contiguous ZIP codes. Participants enrolled in Phase 2 are new to the study (cross-over is by neighborhood, not individual)
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2865646&req=5

Fig1: Study design assignment by neighborhood, with crossover. Each site (neighborhood) comprised three contiguous ZIP codes. Participants enrolled in Phase 2 are new to the study (cross-over is by neighborhood, not individual)
Mentions: Seventeen ZIP codes were identified, within the greater Los Angeles, California metropolitan area, that were anticipated to be similar in ethnic composition and socioeconomic status. The ZIP codes were expected to have many drug users based on having high rates of drug-related deaths, arrests, arrestees with positive drug screening cases of HIV and AIDS, drug-related emergency room admissions and drug intake data and sexually transmitted diseases. From government data sets and existing research projects ongoing in the 17 ZIP codes, two sets of three contiguous ZIP codes were identified that were similar in the number of anticipated drug users and in the types of drugs being used (details available upon request). Each site consisted of about 50,000 households of about the same size, age, and ethnicity. Table 1 describes the demographics of the two sites. After Site A and Site B were identified, the sites were randomly assigned to receive either the VCT or the Safety Counts intervention in the first phase of the study. In the second phase, each site received the alternative intervention condition. Figure 1 outlines the recruitment and assignment to intervention condition that took place in Sites A and B over the 3.5 years of the study, during 1992–1995.Table 1

Bottom Line: The more sessions of Safety Counts attended, the greater were the reductions in risky acts.Different analytic decisions result in very different findings for the same intervention.Analytic decision of intervention outcomes is highly related to evaluations of an intervention's efficacy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for HIV Identification, Prevention, and Treatment Services, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Rotheram@ucla.edu

ABSTRACT
The efficacy of Safety Counts, a CDC-diffused intervention, was reanalyzed. In a quasi experimental, cross-over design, injection drug users (IDU) and crack users in two neighborhoods were assigned by neighborhood to receive individual Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing or Safety Counts and 78% were reassessed at 5-9 months. Drug users in the Safety Counts program reported significantly greater reductions in risky sex, crack and hard drug use, and risky drug injection. The more sessions of Safety Counts attended, the greater were the reductions in risky acts. Different analytic decisions result in very different findings for the same intervention. Safety Counts is an effective intervention for IDU and crack users. Analytic decision of intervention outcomes is highly related to evaluations of an intervention's efficacy.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus