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Electrochemical growth behavior, surface properties, and enhanced in vivo bone response of TiO2 nanotubes on microstructured surfaces of blasted, screw-shaped titanium implants.

Sul YT - Int J Nanomedicine (2010)

Bottom Line: The results show that vertically aligned nanotubes of approximately 700 nm in length, with highly ordered structures of approximately 40 nm spacing and approximately 15 nm wall thickness may be grown independent of reaction time.The geometrical properties of nanotubes increase with reaction time (mean pore size, pore size distribution [PSD], and porosity approximately 90 nm, approximately 40-127 nm and 45%, respectively for 30 minutes; approximately 107 nm, approximately 63-140 nm and 56% for one hour; approximately 108 nm, approximately 58-150 nm and 60% for three hours).It is found that the fluorinated chemistry of the nanotubes of F-TiO(2), TiOF(2), and F-Ti-O with F ion incorporation of approximately 5 at.%, and their amorphous structure is the same regardless of the reaction time, while the average roughness (Sa) gradually decreases and the developed surface area (Sdr) slightly increases with reaction time.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomaterials/Handicap Research, Institute for Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden. young-taeg.sul@biomaterials.gu.se

ABSTRACT
TiO(2) nanotubes are fabricated on TiO(2) grit-blasted, screw-shaped rough titanium (ASTM grade 4) implants (3.75 x 7 mm) using potentiostatic anodization at 20 V in 1 M H(3)PO(4) + 0.4 wt.% HF. The growth behavior and surface properties of the nanotubes are investigated as a function of the reaction time. The results show that vertically aligned nanotubes of approximately 700 nm in length, with highly ordered structures of approximately 40 nm spacing and approximately 15 nm wall thickness may be grown independent of reaction time. The geometrical properties of nanotubes increase with reaction time (mean pore size, pore size distribution [PSD], and porosity approximately 90 nm, approximately 40-127 nm and 45%, respectively for 30 minutes; approximately 107 nm, approximately 63-140 nm and 56% for one hour; approximately 108 nm, approximately 58-150 nm and 60% for three hours). It is found that the fluorinated chemistry of the nanotubes of F-TiO(2), TiOF(2), and F-Ti-O with F ion incorporation of approximately 5 at.%, and their amorphous structure is the same regardless of the reaction time, while the average roughness (Sa) gradually decreases and the developed surface area (Sdr) slightly increases with reaction time. The results of studies on animals show that, despite their low roughness values, after six weeks the fluorinated TiO(2) nanotube implants in rabbit femurs demonstrate significantly increased osseointegration strengths (41 vs 29 Ncm; P = 0.008) and new bone formation (57.5% vs 65.5%; P = 0.008) (n = 8), and reveal more frequently direct bone/cell contact at the bone-implant interface by high-resolution scanning electron microscope observations as compared with the blasted, moderately rough implants that have hitherto been widely used for clinically favorable performance. The results of the animal studies constitute significant evidence that the presence of the nanotubes and the resulting fluorinated surface chemistry determine the nature of the bone responses to the implants. The present in vivo results point to potential applications of the TiO(2) nanotubes in the field of bone implants and bone tissue engineering.

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Three-dimensional images of TiO2 nanotubes electrochemically fabricated on blasted, screw-shaped titanium implants for A) 30 minutes, B) one hour, and C) three hours obtained using interferometry with a measuring volume of 230 × 230 × 5 μm3.
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f7-ijn-5-087: Three-dimensional images of TiO2 nanotubes electrochemically fabricated on blasted, screw-shaped titanium implants for A) 30 minutes, B) one hour, and C) three hours obtained using interferometry with a measuring volume of 230 × 230 × 5 μm3.

Mentions: Figure 6B and C show how the three-dimensional roughness parameters Sa (arithmetic average height deviation, μm) and Sdr (the ratio of the increment of the interfacial area of a surface over the sampling area, %) vary with reaction time. The Sa values corresponding to the blasted implants and the nanotube implants prepared with reaction times of 30 minutes, one hour, and three hours were 0.81 (±0.09), 0.74 (±0.09), 0.69 (±0.09), and 0.65 μm (±0.02), respectively. The equivalent values for Sdr were 40.5 (±7.8), 13.5 (±1.9), 14.0 (±0.5), and 14.3% (±0.9). The gradual decrease in Sa is due to the ‘smoothening’ effect brought about by chemical/electrochemical dissolution,9,11 whereas the slight increase in Sdr values reflects the increase in pore size and PSD with reaction time. Three-dimensional images obtained using Interferometry reveal that the nanotube implants nevertheless show a baseline wave pattern (frequency) that is similar to that of the machine-turned implants (Figure 7).


Electrochemical growth behavior, surface properties, and enhanced in vivo bone response of TiO2 nanotubes on microstructured surfaces of blasted, screw-shaped titanium implants.

Sul YT - Int J Nanomedicine (2010)

Three-dimensional images of TiO2 nanotubes electrochemically fabricated on blasted, screw-shaped titanium implants for A) 30 minutes, B) one hour, and C) three hours obtained using interferometry with a measuring volume of 230 × 230 × 5 μm3.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2865007&req=5

f7-ijn-5-087: Three-dimensional images of TiO2 nanotubes electrochemically fabricated on blasted, screw-shaped titanium implants for A) 30 minutes, B) one hour, and C) three hours obtained using interferometry with a measuring volume of 230 × 230 × 5 μm3.
Mentions: Figure 6B and C show how the three-dimensional roughness parameters Sa (arithmetic average height deviation, μm) and Sdr (the ratio of the increment of the interfacial area of a surface over the sampling area, %) vary with reaction time. The Sa values corresponding to the blasted implants and the nanotube implants prepared with reaction times of 30 minutes, one hour, and three hours were 0.81 (±0.09), 0.74 (±0.09), 0.69 (±0.09), and 0.65 μm (±0.02), respectively. The equivalent values for Sdr were 40.5 (±7.8), 13.5 (±1.9), 14.0 (±0.5), and 14.3% (±0.9). The gradual decrease in Sa is due to the ‘smoothening’ effect brought about by chemical/electrochemical dissolution,9,11 whereas the slight increase in Sdr values reflects the increase in pore size and PSD with reaction time. Three-dimensional images obtained using Interferometry reveal that the nanotube implants nevertheless show a baseline wave pattern (frequency) that is similar to that of the machine-turned implants (Figure 7).

Bottom Line: The results show that vertically aligned nanotubes of approximately 700 nm in length, with highly ordered structures of approximately 40 nm spacing and approximately 15 nm wall thickness may be grown independent of reaction time.The geometrical properties of nanotubes increase with reaction time (mean pore size, pore size distribution [PSD], and porosity approximately 90 nm, approximately 40-127 nm and 45%, respectively for 30 minutes; approximately 107 nm, approximately 63-140 nm and 56% for one hour; approximately 108 nm, approximately 58-150 nm and 60% for three hours).It is found that the fluorinated chemistry of the nanotubes of F-TiO(2), TiOF(2), and F-Ti-O with F ion incorporation of approximately 5 at.%, and their amorphous structure is the same regardless of the reaction time, while the average roughness (Sa) gradually decreases and the developed surface area (Sdr) slightly increases with reaction time.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomaterials/Handicap Research, Institute for Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden. young-taeg.sul@biomaterials.gu.se

ABSTRACT
TiO(2) nanotubes are fabricated on TiO(2) grit-blasted, screw-shaped rough titanium (ASTM grade 4) implants (3.75 x 7 mm) using potentiostatic anodization at 20 V in 1 M H(3)PO(4) + 0.4 wt.% HF. The growth behavior and surface properties of the nanotubes are investigated as a function of the reaction time. The results show that vertically aligned nanotubes of approximately 700 nm in length, with highly ordered structures of approximately 40 nm spacing and approximately 15 nm wall thickness may be grown independent of reaction time. The geometrical properties of nanotubes increase with reaction time (mean pore size, pore size distribution [PSD], and porosity approximately 90 nm, approximately 40-127 nm and 45%, respectively for 30 minutes; approximately 107 nm, approximately 63-140 nm and 56% for one hour; approximately 108 nm, approximately 58-150 nm and 60% for three hours). It is found that the fluorinated chemistry of the nanotubes of F-TiO(2), TiOF(2), and F-Ti-O with F ion incorporation of approximately 5 at.%, and their amorphous structure is the same regardless of the reaction time, while the average roughness (Sa) gradually decreases and the developed surface area (Sdr) slightly increases with reaction time. The results of studies on animals show that, despite their low roughness values, after six weeks the fluorinated TiO(2) nanotube implants in rabbit femurs demonstrate significantly increased osseointegration strengths (41 vs 29 Ncm; P = 0.008) and new bone formation (57.5% vs 65.5%; P = 0.008) (n = 8), and reveal more frequently direct bone/cell contact at the bone-implant interface by high-resolution scanning electron microscope observations as compared with the blasted, moderately rough implants that have hitherto been widely used for clinically favorable performance. The results of the animal studies constitute significant evidence that the presence of the nanotubes and the resulting fluorinated surface chemistry determine the nature of the bone responses to the implants. The present in vivo results point to potential applications of the TiO(2) nanotubes in the field of bone implants and bone tissue engineering.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus