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Electrochemical growth behavior, surface properties, and enhanced in vivo bone response of TiO2 nanotubes on microstructured surfaces of blasted, screw-shaped titanium implants.

Sul YT - Int J Nanomedicine (2010)

Bottom Line: The results show that vertically aligned nanotubes of approximately 700 nm in length, with highly ordered structures of approximately 40 nm spacing and approximately 15 nm wall thickness may be grown independent of reaction time.The geometrical properties of nanotubes increase with reaction time (mean pore size, pore size distribution [PSD], and porosity approximately 90 nm, approximately 40-127 nm and 45%, respectively for 30 minutes; approximately 107 nm, approximately 63-140 nm and 56% for one hour; approximately 108 nm, approximately 58-150 nm and 60% for three hours).It is found that the fluorinated chemistry of the nanotubes of F-TiO(2), TiOF(2), and F-Ti-O with F ion incorporation of approximately 5 at.%, and their amorphous structure is the same regardless of the reaction time, while the average roughness (Sa) gradually decreases and the developed surface area (Sdr) slightly increases with reaction time.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomaterials/Handicap Research, Institute for Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden. young-taeg.sul@biomaterials.gu.se

ABSTRACT
TiO(2) nanotubes are fabricated on TiO(2) grit-blasted, screw-shaped rough titanium (ASTM grade 4) implants (3.75 x 7 mm) using potentiostatic anodization at 20 V in 1 M H(3)PO(4) + 0.4 wt.% HF. The growth behavior and surface properties of the nanotubes are investigated as a function of the reaction time. The results show that vertically aligned nanotubes of approximately 700 nm in length, with highly ordered structures of approximately 40 nm spacing and approximately 15 nm wall thickness may be grown independent of reaction time. The geometrical properties of nanotubes increase with reaction time (mean pore size, pore size distribution [PSD], and porosity approximately 90 nm, approximately 40-127 nm and 45%, respectively for 30 minutes; approximately 107 nm, approximately 63-140 nm and 56% for one hour; approximately 108 nm, approximately 58-150 nm and 60% for three hours). It is found that the fluorinated chemistry of the nanotubes of F-TiO(2), TiOF(2), and F-Ti-O with F ion incorporation of approximately 5 at.%, and their amorphous structure is the same regardless of the reaction time, while the average roughness (Sa) gradually decreases and the developed surface area (Sdr) slightly increases with reaction time. The results of studies on animals show that, despite their low roughness values, after six weeks the fluorinated TiO(2) nanotube implants in rabbit femurs demonstrate significantly increased osseointegration strengths (41 vs 29 Ncm; P = 0.008) and new bone formation (57.5% vs 65.5%; P = 0.008) (n = 8), and reveal more frequently direct bone/cell contact at the bone-implant interface by high-resolution scanning electron microscope observations as compared with the blasted, moderately rough implants that have hitherto been widely used for clinically favorable performance. The results of the animal studies constitute significant evidence that the presence of the nanotubes and the resulting fluorinated surface chemistry determine the nature of the bone responses to the implants. The present in vivo results point to potential applications of the TiO(2) nanotubes in the field of bone implants and bone tissue engineering.

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Characteristic current vs time curve showing the effects of A) the potential sweep mode and B) the potentiostatic mode performed on the blasted, screw-shaped implants using 100–150 μm particles of TiO2.
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f2-ijn-5-087: Characteristic current vs time curve showing the effects of A) the potential sweep mode and B) the potentiostatic mode performed on the blasted, screw-shaped implants using 100–150 μm particles of TiO2.

Mentions: Figure 2 shows the typical current vs. time relationship obtained using the blasted, screw-shaped titanium implants in the potential sweep mode, increasing from 0 to 20 V at 500 mV/s followed by the subsequent potentiostatic oxidation mode at 20 V for three hours. During the 40 seconds of the potential sweep mode, the current density increased rapidly to 7.5 mA/cm2 after three seconds and then gradually decreased to about 4.8 mA/cm2 after 40 seconds (Figure 2). The transition in the growth mode from the potential sweep to the potentiostatic state was accompanied by a sharp drop in current density to 1.2 mA/cm2. This value remained steady until 60 seconds and then gradually increased to 2.6 ± 0.2 mA/cm2 between 1120 and 2200 seconds. After that, the current density reached a state of dynamic equilibrium and remained approximately constant at about 2.2 ± 0.2 mA/cm2.


Electrochemical growth behavior, surface properties, and enhanced in vivo bone response of TiO2 nanotubes on microstructured surfaces of blasted, screw-shaped titanium implants.

Sul YT - Int J Nanomedicine (2010)

Characteristic current vs time curve showing the effects of A) the potential sweep mode and B) the potentiostatic mode performed on the blasted, screw-shaped implants using 100–150 μm particles of TiO2.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2865007&req=5

f2-ijn-5-087: Characteristic current vs time curve showing the effects of A) the potential sweep mode and B) the potentiostatic mode performed on the blasted, screw-shaped implants using 100–150 μm particles of TiO2.
Mentions: Figure 2 shows the typical current vs. time relationship obtained using the blasted, screw-shaped titanium implants in the potential sweep mode, increasing from 0 to 20 V at 500 mV/s followed by the subsequent potentiostatic oxidation mode at 20 V for three hours. During the 40 seconds of the potential sweep mode, the current density increased rapidly to 7.5 mA/cm2 after three seconds and then gradually decreased to about 4.8 mA/cm2 after 40 seconds (Figure 2). The transition in the growth mode from the potential sweep to the potentiostatic state was accompanied by a sharp drop in current density to 1.2 mA/cm2. This value remained steady until 60 seconds and then gradually increased to 2.6 ± 0.2 mA/cm2 between 1120 and 2200 seconds. After that, the current density reached a state of dynamic equilibrium and remained approximately constant at about 2.2 ± 0.2 mA/cm2.

Bottom Line: The results show that vertically aligned nanotubes of approximately 700 nm in length, with highly ordered structures of approximately 40 nm spacing and approximately 15 nm wall thickness may be grown independent of reaction time.The geometrical properties of nanotubes increase with reaction time (mean pore size, pore size distribution [PSD], and porosity approximately 90 nm, approximately 40-127 nm and 45%, respectively for 30 minutes; approximately 107 nm, approximately 63-140 nm and 56% for one hour; approximately 108 nm, approximately 58-150 nm and 60% for three hours).It is found that the fluorinated chemistry of the nanotubes of F-TiO(2), TiOF(2), and F-Ti-O with F ion incorporation of approximately 5 at.%, and their amorphous structure is the same regardless of the reaction time, while the average roughness (Sa) gradually decreases and the developed surface area (Sdr) slightly increases with reaction time.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomaterials/Handicap Research, Institute for Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden. young-taeg.sul@biomaterials.gu.se

ABSTRACT
TiO(2) nanotubes are fabricated on TiO(2) grit-blasted, screw-shaped rough titanium (ASTM grade 4) implants (3.75 x 7 mm) using potentiostatic anodization at 20 V in 1 M H(3)PO(4) + 0.4 wt.% HF. The growth behavior and surface properties of the nanotubes are investigated as a function of the reaction time. The results show that vertically aligned nanotubes of approximately 700 nm in length, with highly ordered structures of approximately 40 nm spacing and approximately 15 nm wall thickness may be grown independent of reaction time. The geometrical properties of nanotubes increase with reaction time (mean pore size, pore size distribution [PSD], and porosity approximately 90 nm, approximately 40-127 nm and 45%, respectively for 30 minutes; approximately 107 nm, approximately 63-140 nm and 56% for one hour; approximately 108 nm, approximately 58-150 nm and 60% for three hours). It is found that the fluorinated chemistry of the nanotubes of F-TiO(2), TiOF(2), and F-Ti-O with F ion incorporation of approximately 5 at.%, and their amorphous structure is the same regardless of the reaction time, while the average roughness (Sa) gradually decreases and the developed surface area (Sdr) slightly increases with reaction time. The results of studies on animals show that, despite their low roughness values, after six weeks the fluorinated TiO(2) nanotube implants in rabbit femurs demonstrate significantly increased osseointegration strengths (41 vs 29 Ncm; P = 0.008) and new bone formation (57.5% vs 65.5%; P = 0.008) (n = 8), and reveal more frequently direct bone/cell contact at the bone-implant interface by high-resolution scanning electron microscope observations as compared with the blasted, moderately rough implants that have hitherto been widely used for clinically favorable performance. The results of the animal studies constitute significant evidence that the presence of the nanotubes and the resulting fluorinated surface chemistry determine the nature of the bone responses to the implants. The present in vivo results point to potential applications of the TiO(2) nanotubes in the field of bone implants and bone tissue engineering.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus