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Flexibility of temporal expectations for triple subdivision of a beat.

Repp BH, Jendoubi H - Adv Cogn Psychol (2009)

Bottom Line: The present study asked whether latent expectancies at 1/3 and 2/3 of the IBI can be induced by a global experimental context of triple subdivision, and whether a local context of consistently phase-shifted triple subdivisions can induce different expectancies.These results suggest that temporal referents between beats, which typically are linked to simple ratios of time spans, are flexible and context-dependent.In addition, we show that the PCR, a response to expectancy violation, is independent of and sometimes contrary to the simultaneous phase adaptation required by a change in subdivision timing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, Connecticut.

ABSTRACT
When tapping in synchrony with an isochronous sequence of beats, participants respond automatically to an unexpectedly early or late beat by shifting their next tap; this is termed the phase correction response (PCR). A PCR has also been observed in response to unexpected perturbations of metrical subdivisions of a beat, which suggests that participants have temporal expectancies for subdivisions to occur at particular time points. It has been demonstrated that a latent temporal expectancy at 1/2 of the inter-beat interval (IBI) exists even in the absence of explicit duple subdivision in previous IBIs of a sequence. The present study asked whether latent expectancies at 1/3 and 2/3 of the IBI can be induced by a global experimental context of triple subdivision, and whether a local context of consistently phase-shifted triple subdivisions can induce different expectancies. Using the PCR as the dependent variable, we find weak evidence for latent expectancies but strong evidence for context-induced shifts in expectancies. These results suggest that temporal referents between beats, which typically are linked to simple ratios of time spans, are flexible and context-dependent. In addition, we show that the PCR, a response to expectancy violation, is independent of and sometimes contrary to the simultaneous phase adaptation required by a change in subdivision timing.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The mean pre-transition asynchrony as a function of subdivision type								and A-pattern timing. The grey horizontal line represents the mean								pre-probe asynchrony for the empty A-pattern.
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Figure 6: The mean pre-transition asynchrony as a function of subdivision type and A-pattern timing. The grey horizontal line represents the mean pre-probe asynchrony for the empty A-pattern.

Mentions: Although we present a more detailed picture of asynchronies in later figures, we first show in Figure 6 the mean asynchrony of the tap immediately preceding the A-B transition, which can be compared directly with the pre-probe asynchrony in Experiment 1 (Figure 3). Here, differences among conditions were much less pronounced than they were in Experiment 1, again largely due to S1, which elicited more negative asynchronies here than in Experiment 1. As in Experiment 1, asynchronies were more negative for early than for late S2, whereas for S1 and S12 asynchronies tended to be less negative for early than for late timings. In the ANOVA, only the interaction was significant, F(4, 36) = 10.0, p < .001. In a joint ANOVA with Experiment 1, however, there were significant main effects of subdivision type, F(2, 36) = 9.9, p = .001, and of A-pattern (context), F(2, 36) = 4.5, p = .030, as well as a main effect of experiment, F(1, 18) = 4.5, p = .047, and an interaction of experiment with subdivision type, F(4, 36) = 9.9, p = .001.


Flexibility of temporal expectations for triple subdivision of a beat.

Repp BH, Jendoubi H - Adv Cogn Psychol (2009)

The mean pre-transition asynchrony as a function of subdivision type								and A-pattern timing. The grey horizontal line represents the mean								pre-probe asynchrony for the empty A-pattern.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2865005&req=5

Figure 6: The mean pre-transition asynchrony as a function of subdivision type and A-pattern timing. The grey horizontal line represents the mean pre-probe asynchrony for the empty A-pattern.
Mentions: Although we present a more detailed picture of asynchronies in later figures, we first show in Figure 6 the mean asynchrony of the tap immediately preceding the A-B transition, which can be compared directly with the pre-probe asynchrony in Experiment 1 (Figure 3). Here, differences among conditions were much less pronounced than they were in Experiment 1, again largely due to S1, which elicited more negative asynchronies here than in Experiment 1. As in Experiment 1, asynchronies were more negative for early than for late S2, whereas for S1 and S12 asynchronies tended to be less negative for early than for late timings. In the ANOVA, only the interaction was significant, F(4, 36) = 10.0, p < .001. In a joint ANOVA with Experiment 1, however, there were significant main effects of subdivision type, F(2, 36) = 9.9, p = .001, and of A-pattern (context), F(2, 36) = 4.5, p = .030, as well as a main effect of experiment, F(1, 18) = 4.5, p = .047, and an interaction of experiment with subdivision type, F(4, 36) = 9.9, p = .001.

Bottom Line: The present study asked whether latent expectancies at 1/3 and 2/3 of the IBI can be induced by a global experimental context of triple subdivision, and whether a local context of consistently phase-shifted triple subdivisions can induce different expectancies.These results suggest that temporal referents between beats, which typically are linked to simple ratios of time spans, are flexible and context-dependent.In addition, we show that the PCR, a response to expectancy violation, is independent of and sometimes contrary to the simultaneous phase adaptation required by a change in subdivision timing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, Connecticut.

ABSTRACT
When tapping in synchrony with an isochronous sequence of beats, participants respond automatically to an unexpectedly early or late beat by shifting their next tap; this is termed the phase correction response (PCR). A PCR has also been observed in response to unexpected perturbations of metrical subdivisions of a beat, which suggests that participants have temporal expectancies for subdivisions to occur at particular time points. It has been demonstrated that a latent temporal expectancy at 1/2 of the inter-beat interval (IBI) exists even in the absence of explicit duple subdivision in previous IBIs of a sequence. The present study asked whether latent expectancies at 1/3 and 2/3 of the IBI can be induced by a global experimental context of triple subdivision, and whether a local context of consistently phase-shifted triple subdivisions can induce different expectancies. Using the PCR as the dependent variable, we find weak evidence for latent expectancies but strong evidence for context-induced shifts in expectancies. These results suggest that temporal referents between beats, which typically are linked to simple ratios of time spans, are flexible and context-dependent. In addition, we show that the PCR, a response to expectancy violation, is independent of and sometimes contrary to the simultaneous phase adaptation required by a change in subdivision timing.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus