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Acquired and congenital disorders of sung performance: A review.

Berkowska M, Dalla Bella S - Adv Cogn Psychol (2009)

Bottom Line: A variety of poor-singing "phenotypes" are described, with or without concurrent perceptual deficits.In addition, particular attention is paid to the dissociations between specific abilities in poor singers (e.g., production of absolute vs. relative pitch, pitch vs. time accuracy).Such diversity of impairments in poor singers can be traced to different faulty mechanisms within the vocal sensorimotor loop, such as pitch perception and sensorimotor integration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cognitive Psychology, WSFIZ in Warsaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Many believe that the majority of people are unable to carry a tune. Yet, this widespread idea underestimates the singing abilities of the layman. Most occasional singers can sing in tune and in time, provided that they perform at a slow tempo. Here we characterize proficient singing in the general population and identify its neuronal underpinnings by reviewing behavioral and neuroimaging studies. In addition, poor singing resulting from a brain injury or neurogenetic disorder (i.e., tone deafness or congenital amusia) is examined. Different lines of evidence converge in indicating that poor singing is not a monolithic deficit. A variety of poor-singing "phenotypes" are described, with or without concurrent perceptual deficits. In addition, particular attention is paid to the dissociations between specific abilities in poor singers (e.g., production of absolute vs. relative pitch, pitch vs. time accuracy). Such diversity of impairments in poor singers can be traced to different faulty mechanisms within the vocal sensorimotor loop, such as pitch perception and sensorimotor integration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Neuronal underpinnings of the human song system.
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Figure 1: Neuronal underpinnings of the human song system.

Mentions: Other neuroimaging studies have focused on the neuronal substrates of the human song system, uncovering a quite consistent functional network including motor and sensory areas as well as auditory-motor integration regions (see Figure 1). Singing recruits regions of the primary motor cortex, such as the mouth region (e.g., Brown, Martinez, Hodges, Fox, & Parsons, 2004), and the larynx/phonation area, activated by adduction/abduction and tension/relaxation of the vocal folds (Brown, Ngan, & Liotti, 2008). The larynx area, recently described, is likely to function as the major vocal center of the motor cortex in humans. The primary auditory cortex (i.e., the superior temporal gyrus, STG) is also engaged by vocal performance, for example when repeating a single note (Perry et al., 1999) or singing more complex melodies (Brown et al., 2004; Kleber et al., 2007). Other cortical areas which are systematically recruited by vocal performance are the supplementary motor area (SMA), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the insula (Brown et al., 2004; Kleber et al., 2007; Perry et al., 1999; Zarate & Zatorre, 2008). The SMA is notoriously engaged in high-level motor control, needed for efficient motor planning in sequence production, such as in overt speech production (e.g., Turkeltaub, Eden, Jones, & Zeffiro, 2002). The ACC is involved in the initiation of vocalization, as indicated by studies on primates (see Jürgens, 2002, for a review), and is implicated in overt speech and singing (Paus, 2001; Perry et al., 1999). Finally, the anterior insula is associated with vocalization processes, mostly articulation (e.g., Dronkers, 1996). Because the anterior insula is connected to both the ACC and to the auditory areas, this region may be involved in integrating auditory feedback with motor output (Ackermann & Riecker, 2004; Riecker et al., 2000).


Acquired and congenital disorders of sung performance: A review.

Berkowska M, Dalla Bella S - Adv Cogn Psychol (2009)

Neuronal underpinnings of the human song system.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2865000&req=5

Figure 1: Neuronal underpinnings of the human song system.
Mentions: Other neuroimaging studies have focused on the neuronal substrates of the human song system, uncovering a quite consistent functional network including motor and sensory areas as well as auditory-motor integration regions (see Figure 1). Singing recruits regions of the primary motor cortex, such as the mouth region (e.g., Brown, Martinez, Hodges, Fox, & Parsons, 2004), and the larynx/phonation area, activated by adduction/abduction and tension/relaxation of the vocal folds (Brown, Ngan, & Liotti, 2008). The larynx area, recently described, is likely to function as the major vocal center of the motor cortex in humans. The primary auditory cortex (i.e., the superior temporal gyrus, STG) is also engaged by vocal performance, for example when repeating a single note (Perry et al., 1999) or singing more complex melodies (Brown et al., 2004; Kleber et al., 2007). Other cortical areas which are systematically recruited by vocal performance are the supplementary motor area (SMA), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the insula (Brown et al., 2004; Kleber et al., 2007; Perry et al., 1999; Zarate & Zatorre, 2008). The SMA is notoriously engaged in high-level motor control, needed for efficient motor planning in sequence production, such as in overt speech production (e.g., Turkeltaub, Eden, Jones, & Zeffiro, 2002). The ACC is involved in the initiation of vocalization, as indicated by studies on primates (see Jürgens, 2002, for a review), and is implicated in overt speech and singing (Paus, 2001; Perry et al., 1999). Finally, the anterior insula is associated with vocalization processes, mostly articulation (e.g., Dronkers, 1996). Because the anterior insula is connected to both the ACC and to the auditory areas, this region may be involved in integrating auditory feedback with motor output (Ackermann & Riecker, 2004; Riecker et al., 2000).

Bottom Line: A variety of poor-singing "phenotypes" are described, with or without concurrent perceptual deficits.In addition, particular attention is paid to the dissociations between specific abilities in poor singers (e.g., production of absolute vs. relative pitch, pitch vs. time accuracy).Such diversity of impairments in poor singers can be traced to different faulty mechanisms within the vocal sensorimotor loop, such as pitch perception and sensorimotor integration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cognitive Psychology, WSFIZ in Warsaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Many believe that the majority of people are unable to carry a tune. Yet, this widespread idea underestimates the singing abilities of the layman. Most occasional singers can sing in tune and in time, provided that they perform at a slow tempo. Here we characterize proficient singing in the general population and identify its neuronal underpinnings by reviewing behavioral and neuroimaging studies. In addition, poor singing resulting from a brain injury or neurogenetic disorder (i.e., tone deafness or congenital amusia) is examined. Different lines of evidence converge in indicating that poor singing is not a monolithic deficit. A variety of poor-singing "phenotypes" are described, with or without concurrent perceptual deficits. In addition, particular attention is paid to the dissociations between specific abilities in poor singers (e.g., production of absolute vs. relative pitch, pitch vs. time accuracy). Such diversity of impairments in poor singers can be traced to different faulty mechanisms within the vocal sensorimotor loop, such as pitch perception and sensorimotor integration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus