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The process of spatial knowledge acquisition in a square and a circular virtual environment.

Jansen-Osmann P, Heil M - Adv Cogn Psychol (2008)

Bottom Line: In all measurements of spatial knowledge acquisition an overall developmental performance increase from younger children to adults was found.In contrast to that, the exploration and learning behavior did not differ between adults and children.The advantage of spatial knowledge acquisition in a circular environment in three of four tasks is discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Germany.

ABSTRACT
This study investigated the effect of the environmental structure (circular vs. square environment) on spatial knowledge acquisition in a desktop virtual situation in which self-determined movement was allowed with a total of 120 participants: 7-, 8-year-old children; 11, 12-year-old children, and adults. In all measurements of spatial knowledge acquisition an overall developmental performance increase from younger children to adults was found. In contrast to that, the exploration and learning behavior did not differ between adults and children. Furthermore, the environmental structure influencedthenumber of trials needed to learn the two routes used and the distance walked to the determined landmarks. All these tasks were easier in a circular than in a square environment. This influenceofthe environmental structure was absent in the direction estimations task. The advantage of spatial knowledge acquisition in a circular environment in three of four tasks is discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Mean deviation of distance walked from the optimal path dependent								upon kind of object. Error bars indicate standard errors.
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Figure 3: Mean deviation of distance walked from the optimal path dependent upon kind of object. Error bars indicate standard errors.

Mentions: The analysis of variance revealed main effects of object, F(1, 108) = 5.4, p < .05, η2 = .046, type of maze, F(1, 108) = 12.6, p = .001, η2 = .101, and age group, F(2, 108) = 8.1, p = .001, η2 = .126. No statistically significant influence was found for interactions between type of maze and age group, F(2, 108) = 0.3, η2 = .735; object and type of maze, F(2, 108) = 0.2, η2 = .012; object and age group, F(2, 108) = 0.8, η2 = .003; and the three-way interaction between all experimental factors, F(2, 108) = 0.4, η2 = .019. The distance walked was higher for the route to the goal object “fish” (m=2784.56, SE = 226.93) than for the route to the goal object “Bob” (m=2207.67, SE = 204.47), see Figure 2a. Moreover, it was higher for the younger (m=3388.73, SE = 341.33) than for the older children (m = 2295.26, SE = 283.34), which was higher than that of the adults (m = 1821.59, SE = 146.68), see Figure 2b. Furthermore, all participants walked substantially smaller detours in the circular maze (m=1912.20, SE = 209.12) than in the square one (m = 3079.99, SE = 268.95), see Figure 2c.


The process of spatial knowledge acquisition in a square and a circular virtual environment.

Jansen-Osmann P, Heil M - Adv Cogn Psychol (2008)

Mean deviation of distance walked from the optimal path dependent								upon kind of object. Error bars indicate standard errors.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2864992&req=5

Figure 3: Mean deviation of distance walked from the optimal path dependent upon kind of object. Error bars indicate standard errors.
Mentions: The analysis of variance revealed main effects of object, F(1, 108) = 5.4, p < .05, η2 = .046, type of maze, F(1, 108) = 12.6, p = .001, η2 = .101, and age group, F(2, 108) = 8.1, p = .001, η2 = .126. No statistically significant influence was found for interactions between type of maze and age group, F(2, 108) = 0.3, η2 = .735; object and type of maze, F(2, 108) = 0.2, η2 = .012; object and age group, F(2, 108) = 0.8, η2 = .003; and the three-way interaction between all experimental factors, F(2, 108) = 0.4, η2 = .019. The distance walked was higher for the route to the goal object “fish” (m=2784.56, SE = 226.93) than for the route to the goal object “Bob” (m=2207.67, SE = 204.47), see Figure 2a. Moreover, it was higher for the younger (m=3388.73, SE = 341.33) than for the older children (m = 2295.26, SE = 283.34), which was higher than that of the adults (m = 1821.59, SE = 146.68), see Figure 2b. Furthermore, all participants walked substantially smaller detours in the circular maze (m=1912.20, SE = 209.12) than in the square one (m = 3079.99, SE = 268.95), see Figure 2c.

Bottom Line: In all measurements of spatial knowledge acquisition an overall developmental performance increase from younger children to adults was found.In contrast to that, the exploration and learning behavior did not differ between adults and children.The advantage of spatial knowledge acquisition in a circular environment in three of four tasks is discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Germany.

ABSTRACT
This study investigated the effect of the environmental structure (circular vs. square environment) on spatial knowledge acquisition in a desktop virtual situation in which self-determined movement was allowed with a total of 120 participants: 7-, 8-year-old children; 11, 12-year-old children, and adults. In all measurements of spatial knowledge acquisition an overall developmental performance increase from younger children to adults was found. In contrast to that, the exploration and learning behavior did not differ between adults and children. Furthermore, the environmental structure influencedthenumber of trials needed to learn the two routes used and the distance walked to the determined landmarks. All these tasks were easier in a circular than in a square environment. This influenceofthe environmental structure was absent in the direction estimations task. The advantage of spatial knowledge acquisition in a circular environment in three of four tasks is discussed.

No MeSH data available.