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Binding binding: Departure points for a different version of the perceptual retouch theory.

Bachmann T - Adv Cogn Psychol (2008)

Bottom Line: In the perceptual retouch theory, masking and related microgenetic phenomena were explained as a result of interaction between specific cortical representational systems and the non-specific sub-cortical modulation system.This article presents some premises for modification of the retouch theory, where instead of the cumulative presynaptic spike activities and EPSPs of single cells, the oscillatory activity in the gamma range of the participating systems is considered and shown to be consistent with the basic ideas of the retouch theory.In this conceptualisation, O-binding refers to specific encoding which is based on gamma-band synchronised oscillations in the activity of specific cortical sensory modules that represent features and objects; C-binding refers to the gamma-band oscillations in the activity of the non-specific thalamic systems, which is necessary for the O-binding based data to become consciously experienced.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology and Institute of Law, University of Tartu.

ABSTRACT
In the perceptual retouch theory, masking and related microgenetic phenomena were explained as a result of interaction between specific cortical representational systems and the non-specific sub-cortical modulation system. Masking appears as deprivation of sufficient modulation of the consciousness mechanism suffered by the target-specific signals because of the temporal delay of non-specific modulation (necessary for conscious representation), which explicates the later-coming mask information instead of the already decayed target information. The core of the model envisaged relative magnitudes of EPSPs of single cortical cells driven by target and mask signals at the moment when the nonspecific, presynaptic, excitatory input arrives from the thalamus. In the light of the current evidence about the importance of synchronised activity of specific and non-specific systems in generating consciousness, the retouch theory requires perhaps a different view. This article presents some premises for modification of the retouch theory, where instead of the cumulative presynaptic spike activities and EPSPs of single cells, the oscillatory activity in the gamma range of the participating systems is considered and shown to be consistent with the basic ideas of the retouch theory. In this conceptualisation, O-binding refers to specific encoding which is based on gamma-band synchronised oscillations in the activity of specific cortical sensory modules that represent features and objects; C-binding refers to the gamma-band oscillations in the activity of the non-specific thalamic systems, which is necessary for the O-binding based data to become consciously experienced.

No MeSH data available.


A schematic of the functional architecture of the two interacting systems for						sensory data processing. Specific pathways (SP) send sensory signals						upstream to the specific cortical modules that encode stimuli features and						integrate objects in terms of their specific contents. This fast system						builds perceptual representations also pre-consciously. A slower,						non-specific system (NSP), which is located in feature-wise non-specialised						thalamic and reticular centers (e.g., intralaminar nuclei, reticular						nucleus, globus pallidum), interacts with cortical specific units by						modulating cortical activity, preferrably in a facilitative way, increasing						the frequency of firing of the specific units, decreasing their firing						latency and modulating the timing of discharge patterns. The SP-system						serves for binding objects from features (O-binding), the NSP system serves						for modulating the activities of the O-binding system up to the level which						is sufficient for explicit perception (consciousness) of the perceptual						representations carried by the specific representational units. O-binding						system work is necessary for the contents of conscious perception, but						insufficient without the additional upgrading by the C-binding system. Both						systems together are sufficient for perceptual consciousness.
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Figure 1: A schematic of the functional architecture of the two interacting systems for sensory data processing. Specific pathways (SP) send sensory signals upstream to the specific cortical modules that encode stimuli features and integrate objects in terms of their specific contents. This fast system builds perceptual representations also pre-consciously. A slower, non-specific system (NSP), which is located in feature-wise non-specialised thalamic and reticular centers (e.g., intralaminar nuclei, reticular nucleus, globus pallidum), interacts with cortical specific units by modulating cortical activity, preferrably in a facilitative way, increasing the frequency of firing of the specific units, decreasing their firing latency and modulating the timing of discharge patterns. The SP-system serves for binding objects from features (O-binding), the NSP system serves for modulating the activities of the O-binding system up to the level which is sufficient for explicit perception (consciousness) of the perceptual representations carried by the specific representational units. O-binding system work is necessary for the contents of conscious perception, but insufficient without the additional upgrading by the C-binding system. Both systems together are sufficient for perceptual consciousness.

Mentions: 2. While receptive fields of SP neurons are small and allow detailed representation, with specific contents varying from driver to driver (detector to detector), receptive fields of NSP neurons are large and unspecific regarding detailed contents (Brooks & Jung, 1973; Churchland & Sejnowski, 1992; Crick & Koch, 2003; Purpura, 1970). This property enables stimuli that are separated in space and represent different specific contents to evoke activity and interact through the activity of the same NSP unit. For instance, an initially presented stimulus (S1) evokes NSP-activity that can presynaptically modulate both the SP-units representative of S1 itself and SP-units representative of S2. These interacting stimuli need not be spatially superimposed, although they may be. (Figure 1 illustrates the functional architecture of the dual-process approach that lays the grounds for the retouch theory.)


Binding binding: Departure points for a different version of the perceptual retouch theory.

Bachmann T - Adv Cogn Psychol (2008)

A schematic of the functional architecture of the two interacting systems for						sensory data processing. Specific pathways (SP) send sensory signals						upstream to the specific cortical modules that encode stimuli features and						integrate objects in terms of their specific contents. This fast system						builds perceptual representations also pre-consciously. A slower,						non-specific system (NSP), which is located in feature-wise non-specialised						thalamic and reticular centers (e.g., intralaminar nuclei, reticular						nucleus, globus pallidum), interacts with cortical specific units by						modulating cortical activity, preferrably in a facilitative way, increasing						the frequency of firing of the specific units, decreasing their firing						latency and modulating the timing of discharge patterns. The SP-system						serves for binding objects from features (O-binding), the NSP system serves						for modulating the activities of the O-binding system up to the level which						is sufficient for explicit perception (consciousness) of the perceptual						representations carried by the specific representational units. O-binding						system work is necessary for the contents of conscious perception, but						insufficient without the additional upgrading by the C-binding system. Both						systems together are sufficient for perceptual consciousness.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2864979&req=5

Figure 1: A schematic of the functional architecture of the two interacting systems for sensory data processing. Specific pathways (SP) send sensory signals upstream to the specific cortical modules that encode stimuli features and integrate objects in terms of their specific contents. This fast system builds perceptual representations also pre-consciously. A slower, non-specific system (NSP), which is located in feature-wise non-specialised thalamic and reticular centers (e.g., intralaminar nuclei, reticular nucleus, globus pallidum), interacts with cortical specific units by modulating cortical activity, preferrably in a facilitative way, increasing the frequency of firing of the specific units, decreasing their firing latency and modulating the timing of discharge patterns. The SP-system serves for binding objects from features (O-binding), the NSP system serves for modulating the activities of the O-binding system up to the level which is sufficient for explicit perception (consciousness) of the perceptual representations carried by the specific representational units. O-binding system work is necessary for the contents of conscious perception, but insufficient without the additional upgrading by the C-binding system. Both systems together are sufficient for perceptual consciousness.
Mentions: 2. While receptive fields of SP neurons are small and allow detailed representation, with specific contents varying from driver to driver (detector to detector), receptive fields of NSP neurons are large and unspecific regarding detailed contents (Brooks & Jung, 1973; Churchland & Sejnowski, 1992; Crick & Koch, 2003; Purpura, 1970). This property enables stimuli that are separated in space and represent different specific contents to evoke activity and interact through the activity of the same NSP unit. For instance, an initially presented stimulus (S1) evokes NSP-activity that can presynaptically modulate both the SP-units representative of S1 itself and SP-units representative of S2. These interacting stimuli need not be spatially superimposed, although they may be. (Figure 1 illustrates the functional architecture of the dual-process approach that lays the grounds for the retouch theory.)

Bottom Line: In the perceptual retouch theory, masking and related microgenetic phenomena were explained as a result of interaction between specific cortical representational systems and the non-specific sub-cortical modulation system.This article presents some premises for modification of the retouch theory, where instead of the cumulative presynaptic spike activities and EPSPs of single cells, the oscillatory activity in the gamma range of the participating systems is considered and shown to be consistent with the basic ideas of the retouch theory.In this conceptualisation, O-binding refers to specific encoding which is based on gamma-band synchronised oscillations in the activity of specific cortical sensory modules that represent features and objects; C-binding refers to the gamma-band oscillations in the activity of the non-specific thalamic systems, which is necessary for the O-binding based data to become consciously experienced.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology and Institute of Law, University of Tartu.

ABSTRACT
In the perceptual retouch theory, masking and related microgenetic phenomena were explained as a result of interaction between specific cortical representational systems and the non-specific sub-cortical modulation system. Masking appears as deprivation of sufficient modulation of the consciousness mechanism suffered by the target-specific signals because of the temporal delay of non-specific modulation (necessary for conscious representation), which explicates the later-coming mask information instead of the already decayed target information. The core of the model envisaged relative magnitudes of EPSPs of single cortical cells driven by target and mask signals at the moment when the nonspecific, presynaptic, excitatory input arrives from the thalamus. In the light of the current evidence about the importance of synchronised activity of specific and non-specific systems in generating consciousness, the retouch theory requires perhaps a different view. This article presents some premises for modification of the retouch theory, where instead of the cumulative presynaptic spike activities and EPSPs of single cells, the oscillatory activity in the gamma range of the participating systems is considered and shown to be consistent with the basic ideas of the retouch theory. In this conceptualisation, O-binding refers to specific encoding which is based on gamma-band synchronised oscillations in the activity of specific cortical sensory modules that represent features and objects; C-binding refers to the gamma-band oscillations in the activity of the non-specific thalamic systems, which is necessary for the O-binding based data to become consciously experienced.

No MeSH data available.