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What determines the direction of subliminal priming.

Jaśkowski P, Verleger R - Adv Cogn Psychol (2008)

Bottom Line: The self-inhibition (SI) hypothesis assumes that the motor activation elicited by a prime is automatically followed by an inhibition phase, leading to inverse priming if three conditions are fulfilled: perceptual evidence for the prime has to be sufficiently strong, it has to be immediately removed by the mask, and the delay between the prime and target has to be long enough for inhibition to become effective.The MTI hypothesis assumes that the inhibitory phase is triggered by each successive stimulus which does not support the perceptual hypothesis provided by the prime.A limiting factor for all three hypotheses is that inverse priming is larger for arrows than for other shapes, making it doubtful as to what extent the majority of studies on inverse priming, due to their use of arrows, can be generalized to other stimuli.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cognitive Psychology, University of Finance and Management, Warszawa, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Masked stimuli (primes) can affect the preparation of a motor response to subsequently presented target stimuli. Reactions to the target can be facilitated (straight priming) or inhibited (inverse priming) when preceded by a compatible prime (calling for the same response) and also when preceded by an incompatible prime. Several hypotheses are currently under debate. These are the self-inhibition (SI) hypothesis, the object-updating (OU) hypothesis, and mask-triggered inhibition (MTI) hypothesis. All assume that the initial activation of the motor response is elicited by the prime according to its identity. This activation inevitably leads to straight priming in some cases and the mechanisms involved are undisputed. The hypotheses differ, however, as to why inverse priming occurs. The self-inhibition (SI) hypothesis assumes that the motor activation elicited by a prime is automatically followed by an inhibition phase, leading to inverse priming if three conditions are fulfilled: perceptual evidence for the prime has to be sufficiently strong, it has to be immediately removed by the mask, and the delay between the prime and target has to be long enough for inhibition to become effective. The object-updating (OU) hypothesis assumes that inverse priming is triggered by the mask, provided that it contains features calling for the alternative response (i.e. the one contrasting with the response induced by the prime). The MTI hypothesis assumes that the inhibitory phase is triggered by each successive stimulus which does not support the perceptual hypothesis provided by the prime. Based mostly on our own experiments, we argue that (1) attempts to manipulate the three factors required by the SI hypothesis imply changes of other variables and that (2) indeed, other variables seem to affect priming: prime-mask perceptual interaction and temporal position of the mask. These observations are in favor of the MTI hypothesis. A limiting factor for all three hypotheses is that inverse priming is larger for arrows than for other shapes, making it doubtful as to what extent the majority of studies on inverse priming, due to their use of arrows, can be generalized to other stimuli.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Results of two experiments by Jaśkowski and Ślósarek (2007) with primes of						different shapes. Priming effect [= RT(incompatible) – RT(compatible)] is						plotted as a function of the prime-target interval. The shapes of the primes						used are shown near each plot. In the experiment whose results are presented						in the left graph, the masks were formed from lines of different orientation						and length, randomly dispersed over an area. The mask used in the other						experiment was formed from the two primes of a given pair overlaid with one						another. Note that overlaying the two pairs of the primes forms the						identical mask.
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Figure 4: Results of two experiments by Jaśkowski and Ślósarek (2007) with primes of different shapes. Priming effect [= RT(incompatible) – RT(compatible)] is plotted as a function of the prime-target interval. The shapes of the primes used are shown near each plot. In the experiment whose results are presented in the left graph, the masks were formed from lines of different orientation and length, randomly dispersed over an area. The mask used in the other experiment was formed from the two primes of a given pair overlaid with one another. Note that overlaying the two pairs of the primes forms the identical mask.

Mentions: The majority of studies reviewed so far used arrow-head lines as primes and targets. Thus, the question arises as to how much inverse priming actually occurs with other stimuli. In fact, inverse priming has been obtained with a number of different stimuli: inverted arrows (Eimer & Schlaghecken, 1998), squares vs. diamonds (Eimer, 1999; Mattler, 2005), and “bars” (Verleger et al., 2005). Directly comparing arrows to letters (H and S, which are the standard stimuli applied in many studies on the interfering effect of flanking stimuli), Verleger et al. (submitted) obtained inverse priming with arrows only. They did obtain a differential effect of masks on letter priming, very similar to the effect they obtained with arrows: Priming was less straight with the overlaid-primes than with the random-line mask. But the effect remained in the positive range. Another interesting result was obtained by Verleger et al. (2005) : When masked by their overlaid-primes mask, “bars” (a horizontal line with a response-relevant vertical line at its left or right side) tended to have a straight priming effect. It was only when they were masked by overlaid arrows that inverse priming occurred. To account for these two unclear effects, Verleger et al. (submitted) presumed that arrows are special in evoking inverse priming, possibly related to their stronger interfering effects as irrelevant flankers (Mattler, 2003; Wascher, Reinhard, Wauschkuhn, & Verleger, 1999), and to their potency to activate pre-motor cortex by default (Praamstra, Boutsen, & Humphreys, 2005; Verleger, Vollmer, Wauschkuhn, & Wascher, 2000). To investigate these matters, Jaśkowski and Ślósarek (2007) compared the priming effects of different shapes as primes and targets, holding the mask constant (random-lines mask). In agreement with the presumed special role of arrows, inverse priming evoked by arrows was larger than by brackets and by diamond vs. square (Fig. 4, upper panel). However, Jaśkowski and Ślósarek reasoned that the decisive factor might again be the prime-mask interaction (i.e. the ease with which the prime and target features could be singled out in the mask structure). In support of this assumption, diamond vs. cross, which stimuli can be singled out with ease from an overlaid-arrows mask but which clearly do not possess any overlearned directional feature, had a strong inverse priming effect, no less than arrows at


What determines the direction of subliminal priming.

Jaśkowski P, Verleger R - Adv Cogn Psychol (2008)

Results of two experiments by Jaśkowski and Ślósarek (2007) with primes of						different shapes. Priming effect [= RT(incompatible) – RT(compatible)] is						plotted as a function of the prime-target interval. The shapes of the primes						used are shown near each plot. In the experiment whose results are presented						in the left graph, the masks were formed from lines of different orientation						and length, randomly dispersed over an area. The mask used in the other						experiment was formed from the two primes of a given pair overlaid with one						another. Note that overlaying the two pairs of the primes forms the						identical mask.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2864970&req=5

Figure 4: Results of two experiments by Jaśkowski and Ślósarek (2007) with primes of different shapes. Priming effect [= RT(incompatible) – RT(compatible)] is plotted as a function of the prime-target interval. The shapes of the primes used are shown near each plot. In the experiment whose results are presented in the left graph, the masks were formed from lines of different orientation and length, randomly dispersed over an area. The mask used in the other experiment was formed from the two primes of a given pair overlaid with one another. Note that overlaying the two pairs of the primes forms the identical mask.
Mentions: The majority of studies reviewed so far used arrow-head lines as primes and targets. Thus, the question arises as to how much inverse priming actually occurs with other stimuli. In fact, inverse priming has been obtained with a number of different stimuli: inverted arrows (Eimer & Schlaghecken, 1998), squares vs. diamonds (Eimer, 1999; Mattler, 2005), and “bars” (Verleger et al., 2005). Directly comparing arrows to letters (H and S, which are the standard stimuli applied in many studies on the interfering effect of flanking stimuli), Verleger et al. (submitted) obtained inverse priming with arrows only. They did obtain a differential effect of masks on letter priming, very similar to the effect they obtained with arrows: Priming was less straight with the overlaid-primes than with the random-line mask. But the effect remained in the positive range. Another interesting result was obtained by Verleger et al. (2005) : When masked by their overlaid-primes mask, “bars” (a horizontal line with a response-relevant vertical line at its left or right side) tended to have a straight priming effect. It was only when they were masked by overlaid arrows that inverse priming occurred. To account for these two unclear effects, Verleger et al. (submitted) presumed that arrows are special in evoking inverse priming, possibly related to their stronger interfering effects as irrelevant flankers (Mattler, 2003; Wascher, Reinhard, Wauschkuhn, & Verleger, 1999), and to their potency to activate pre-motor cortex by default (Praamstra, Boutsen, & Humphreys, 2005; Verleger, Vollmer, Wauschkuhn, & Wascher, 2000). To investigate these matters, Jaśkowski and Ślósarek (2007) compared the priming effects of different shapes as primes and targets, holding the mask constant (random-lines mask). In agreement with the presumed special role of arrows, inverse priming evoked by arrows was larger than by brackets and by diamond vs. square (Fig. 4, upper panel). However, Jaśkowski and Ślósarek reasoned that the decisive factor might again be the prime-mask interaction (i.e. the ease with which the prime and target features could be singled out in the mask structure). In support of this assumption, diamond vs. cross, which stimuli can be singled out with ease from an overlaid-arrows mask but which clearly do not possess any overlearned directional feature, had a strong inverse priming effect, no less than arrows at

Bottom Line: The self-inhibition (SI) hypothesis assumes that the motor activation elicited by a prime is automatically followed by an inhibition phase, leading to inverse priming if three conditions are fulfilled: perceptual evidence for the prime has to be sufficiently strong, it has to be immediately removed by the mask, and the delay between the prime and target has to be long enough for inhibition to become effective.The MTI hypothesis assumes that the inhibitory phase is triggered by each successive stimulus which does not support the perceptual hypothesis provided by the prime.A limiting factor for all three hypotheses is that inverse priming is larger for arrows than for other shapes, making it doubtful as to what extent the majority of studies on inverse priming, due to their use of arrows, can be generalized to other stimuli.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cognitive Psychology, University of Finance and Management, Warszawa, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Masked stimuli (primes) can affect the preparation of a motor response to subsequently presented target stimuli. Reactions to the target can be facilitated (straight priming) or inhibited (inverse priming) when preceded by a compatible prime (calling for the same response) and also when preceded by an incompatible prime. Several hypotheses are currently under debate. These are the self-inhibition (SI) hypothesis, the object-updating (OU) hypothesis, and mask-triggered inhibition (MTI) hypothesis. All assume that the initial activation of the motor response is elicited by the prime according to its identity. This activation inevitably leads to straight priming in some cases and the mechanisms involved are undisputed. The hypotheses differ, however, as to why inverse priming occurs. The self-inhibition (SI) hypothesis assumes that the motor activation elicited by a prime is automatically followed by an inhibition phase, leading to inverse priming if three conditions are fulfilled: perceptual evidence for the prime has to be sufficiently strong, it has to be immediately removed by the mask, and the delay between the prime and target has to be long enough for inhibition to become effective. The object-updating (OU) hypothesis assumes that inverse priming is triggered by the mask, provided that it contains features calling for the alternative response (i.e. the one contrasting with the response induced by the prime). The MTI hypothesis assumes that the inhibitory phase is triggered by each successive stimulus which does not support the perceptual hypothesis provided by the prime. Based mostly on our own experiments, we argue that (1) attempts to manipulate the three factors required by the SI hypothesis imply changes of other variables and that (2) indeed, other variables seem to affect priming: prime-mask perceptual interaction and temporal position of the mask. These observations are in favor of the MTI hypothesis. A limiting factor for all three hypotheses is that inverse priming is larger for arrows than for other shapes, making it doubtful as to what extent the majority of studies on inverse priming, due to their use of arrows, can be generalized to other stimuli.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus