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c-Fos expression during temporal order judgment in mice.

Wada M, Higo N, Moizumi S, Kitazawa S - PLoS ONE (2010)

Bottom Line: The expression of c-Fos was significantly higher in the test group than in the other groups in the bilateral barrel fields of the primary somatosensory cortex, the left secondary somatosensory cortex, the dorsal part of the right secondary auditory cortex.Laminar analyses in the primary somatosensory cortex revealed that c-Fos expression in the test group was most evident in layers II and III, where callosal fibers project.The results suggest that temporal order judgment involves processing bilateral somatosensory signals through the supragranular layers of the primary sensory cortex and in the multimodal sensory areas, including marginal zone between the primary somatosensory cortex and the secondary sensory cortex.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. m-wada@juntendo.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
The neuronal mechanisms for ordering sensory signals in time still need to be clarified despite a long history of research. To address this issue, we recently developed a behavioral task of temporal order judgment in mice. In the present study, we examined the expression of c-Fos, a marker of neural activation, in mice just after they carried out the temporal order judgment task. The expression of c-Fos was examined in C57BL/6N mice (male, n = 5) that were trained to judge the order of two air-puff stimuli delivered bilaterally to the right and left whiskers with stimulation intervals of 50-750 ms. The mice were rewarded with a food pellet when they responded by orienting their head toward the first stimulus (n = 2) or toward the second stimulus (n = 3) after a visual "go" signal. c-Fos-stained cell densities of these mice (test group) were compared with those of two control groups in coronal brain sections prepared at bregma -2, -1, 0, +1, and +2 mm by applying statistical parametric mapping to the c-Fos immuno-stained sections. The expression of c-Fos was significantly higher in the test group than in the other groups in the bilateral barrel fields of the primary somatosensory cortex, the left secondary somatosensory cortex, the dorsal part of the right secondary auditory cortex. Laminar analyses in the primary somatosensory cortex revealed that c-Fos expression in the test group was most evident in layers II and III, where callosal fibers project. The results suggest that temporal order judgment involves processing bilateral somatosensory signals through the supragranular layers of the primary sensory cortex and in the multimodal sensory areas, including marginal zone between the primary somatosensory cortex and the secondary sensory cortex.

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c-Fos-positive cell density maps (PCDMs) in three task groups.PCDMs at five different levels (bregma +2, +1, 0, −1, and −2 mm) are shown in rows for each group (columns). In the rightmost column, figures from the brain atlas (Paxinos & Franklin, 2001) are shown for comparison. Abbreviations: M1, primary motor cortex; M2, secondary motor cortex; Pir, piriform cortex; Tu, olfactory tubercle; AOP, anterior olfactory nucleus, posterior; AOM, anterior olfactory nucleus, medial; Cgl, cingulate cortex, area 1; Cg2, cingulate cortex, area 2; S1, primary somatosensory cortex; S1BF, primary somatosensory cortex, barrel field; PV, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus; RSA, retrosplenial agranular cortex; RSG, retrosplenial granular cortex; MtPA, medial parietal association cortex; LtPA, lateral parietal association cortex; AuD, secondary auditory cortex, dorsal; AuV, secondary auditory cortex, ventral. Scale bar: 3 mm.
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pone-0010483-g003: c-Fos-positive cell density maps (PCDMs) in three task groups.PCDMs at five different levels (bregma +2, +1, 0, −1, and −2 mm) are shown in rows for each group (columns). In the rightmost column, figures from the brain atlas (Paxinos & Franklin, 2001) are shown for comparison. Abbreviations: M1, primary motor cortex; M2, secondary motor cortex; Pir, piriform cortex; Tu, olfactory tubercle; AOP, anterior olfactory nucleus, posterior; AOM, anterior olfactory nucleus, medial; Cgl, cingulate cortex, area 1; Cg2, cingulate cortex, area 2; S1, primary somatosensory cortex; S1BF, primary somatosensory cortex, barrel field; PV, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus; RSA, retrosplenial agranular cortex; RSG, retrosplenial granular cortex; MtPA, medial parietal association cortex; LtPA, lateral parietal association cortex; AuD, secondary auditory cortex, dorsal; AuV, secondary auditory cortex, ventral. Scale bar: 3 mm.

Mentions: The composite image was FFT band-pass filtered with an NIH image-J program (NIH, Bethesda, MD) to eliminate low-frequency drifts (>20 pixels = 50 µm) and high frequency noises (<1 pixel = 2.5 µm). The filtered image was further analyzed with a homemade program that was developed on Matlab with image prorocessing toolbox (Mathworks Inc., Natick, MA). A c-Fos positive cell density map was prepared for each section by automatically detecting c-Fos positive cells and by counting the number of immunostained cells at each 100 µm×100 µm square compartment. For each mouse, we created a positive cell density map (PCDM) at each of the five levels from the bregma (+2, +1, 0, −1, and −2±0.2 mm). Finally, the PCDMs were normalized to a standard section and averaged for each group of five mice at each of the five levels (Fig. 3). Details of methodological considerations were as described previously [35], [36].


c-Fos expression during temporal order judgment in mice.

Wada M, Higo N, Moizumi S, Kitazawa S - PLoS ONE (2010)

c-Fos-positive cell density maps (PCDMs) in three task groups.PCDMs at five different levels (bregma +2, +1, 0, −1, and −2 mm) are shown in rows for each group (columns). In the rightmost column, figures from the brain atlas (Paxinos & Franklin, 2001) are shown for comparison. Abbreviations: M1, primary motor cortex; M2, secondary motor cortex; Pir, piriform cortex; Tu, olfactory tubercle; AOP, anterior olfactory nucleus, posterior; AOM, anterior olfactory nucleus, medial; Cgl, cingulate cortex, area 1; Cg2, cingulate cortex, area 2; S1, primary somatosensory cortex; S1BF, primary somatosensory cortex, barrel field; PV, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus; RSA, retrosplenial agranular cortex; RSG, retrosplenial granular cortex; MtPA, medial parietal association cortex; LtPA, lateral parietal association cortex; AuD, secondary auditory cortex, dorsal; AuV, secondary auditory cortex, ventral. Scale bar: 3 mm.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2864740&req=5

pone-0010483-g003: c-Fos-positive cell density maps (PCDMs) in three task groups.PCDMs at five different levels (bregma +2, +1, 0, −1, and −2 mm) are shown in rows for each group (columns). In the rightmost column, figures from the brain atlas (Paxinos & Franklin, 2001) are shown for comparison. Abbreviations: M1, primary motor cortex; M2, secondary motor cortex; Pir, piriform cortex; Tu, olfactory tubercle; AOP, anterior olfactory nucleus, posterior; AOM, anterior olfactory nucleus, medial; Cgl, cingulate cortex, area 1; Cg2, cingulate cortex, area 2; S1, primary somatosensory cortex; S1BF, primary somatosensory cortex, barrel field; PV, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus; RSA, retrosplenial agranular cortex; RSG, retrosplenial granular cortex; MtPA, medial parietal association cortex; LtPA, lateral parietal association cortex; AuD, secondary auditory cortex, dorsal; AuV, secondary auditory cortex, ventral. Scale bar: 3 mm.
Mentions: The composite image was FFT band-pass filtered with an NIH image-J program (NIH, Bethesda, MD) to eliminate low-frequency drifts (>20 pixels = 50 µm) and high frequency noises (<1 pixel = 2.5 µm). The filtered image was further analyzed with a homemade program that was developed on Matlab with image prorocessing toolbox (Mathworks Inc., Natick, MA). A c-Fos positive cell density map was prepared for each section by automatically detecting c-Fos positive cells and by counting the number of immunostained cells at each 100 µm×100 µm square compartment. For each mouse, we created a positive cell density map (PCDM) at each of the five levels from the bregma (+2, +1, 0, −1, and −2±0.2 mm). Finally, the PCDMs were normalized to a standard section and averaged for each group of five mice at each of the five levels (Fig. 3). Details of methodological considerations were as described previously [35], [36].

Bottom Line: The expression of c-Fos was significantly higher in the test group than in the other groups in the bilateral barrel fields of the primary somatosensory cortex, the left secondary somatosensory cortex, the dorsal part of the right secondary auditory cortex.Laminar analyses in the primary somatosensory cortex revealed that c-Fos expression in the test group was most evident in layers II and III, where callosal fibers project.The results suggest that temporal order judgment involves processing bilateral somatosensory signals through the supragranular layers of the primary sensory cortex and in the multimodal sensory areas, including marginal zone between the primary somatosensory cortex and the secondary sensory cortex.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. m-wada@juntendo.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
The neuronal mechanisms for ordering sensory signals in time still need to be clarified despite a long history of research. To address this issue, we recently developed a behavioral task of temporal order judgment in mice. In the present study, we examined the expression of c-Fos, a marker of neural activation, in mice just after they carried out the temporal order judgment task. The expression of c-Fos was examined in C57BL/6N mice (male, n = 5) that were trained to judge the order of two air-puff stimuli delivered bilaterally to the right and left whiskers with stimulation intervals of 50-750 ms. The mice were rewarded with a food pellet when they responded by orienting their head toward the first stimulus (n = 2) or toward the second stimulus (n = 3) after a visual "go" signal. c-Fos-stained cell densities of these mice (test group) were compared with those of two control groups in coronal brain sections prepared at bregma -2, -1, 0, +1, and +2 mm by applying statistical parametric mapping to the c-Fos immuno-stained sections. The expression of c-Fos was significantly higher in the test group than in the other groups in the bilateral barrel fields of the primary somatosensory cortex, the left secondary somatosensory cortex, the dorsal part of the right secondary auditory cortex. Laminar analyses in the primary somatosensory cortex revealed that c-Fos expression in the test group was most evident in layers II and III, where callosal fibers project. The results suggest that temporal order judgment involves processing bilateral somatosensory signals through the supragranular layers of the primary sensory cortex and in the multimodal sensory areas, including marginal zone between the primary somatosensory cortex and the secondary sensory cortex.

Show MeSH