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c-Fos expression during temporal order judgment in mice.

Wada M, Higo N, Moizumi S, Kitazawa S - PLoS ONE (2010)

Bottom Line: The expression of c-Fos was significantly higher in the test group than in the other groups in the bilateral barrel fields of the primary somatosensory cortex, the left secondary somatosensory cortex, the dorsal part of the right secondary auditory cortex.Laminar analyses in the primary somatosensory cortex revealed that c-Fos expression in the test group was most evident in layers II and III, where callosal fibers project.The results suggest that temporal order judgment involves processing bilateral somatosensory signals through the supragranular layers of the primary sensory cortex and in the multimodal sensory areas, including marginal zone between the primary somatosensory cortex and the secondary sensory cortex.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. m-wada@juntendo.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
The neuronal mechanisms for ordering sensory signals in time still need to be clarified despite a long history of research. To address this issue, we recently developed a behavioral task of temporal order judgment in mice. In the present study, we examined the expression of c-Fos, a marker of neural activation, in mice just after they carried out the temporal order judgment task. The expression of c-Fos was examined in C57BL/6N mice (male, n = 5) that were trained to judge the order of two air-puff stimuli delivered bilaterally to the right and left whiskers with stimulation intervals of 50-750 ms. The mice were rewarded with a food pellet when they responded by orienting their head toward the first stimulus (n = 2) or toward the second stimulus (n = 3) after a visual "go" signal. c-Fos-stained cell densities of these mice (test group) were compared with those of two control groups in coronal brain sections prepared at bregma -2, -1, 0, +1, and +2 mm by applying statistical parametric mapping to the c-Fos immuno-stained sections. The expression of c-Fos was significantly higher in the test group than in the other groups in the bilateral barrel fields of the primary somatosensory cortex, the left secondary somatosensory cortex, the dorsal part of the right secondary auditory cortex. Laminar analyses in the primary somatosensory cortex revealed that c-Fos expression in the test group was most evident in layers II and III, where callosal fibers project. The results suggest that temporal order judgment involves processing bilateral somatosensory signals through the supragranular layers of the primary sensory cortex and in the multimodal sensory areas, including marginal zone between the primary somatosensory cortex and the secondary sensory cortex.

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Apparatus (A), task procedures (B), and task performances (C–F).(A) Overhead and front views of the apparatus. Two pairs of tubes were placed vertically within the nose-poking chamber to deliver successive puffs of air (stimuli) to the whiskers. One tube (dummy) of each pair delivered air-puffs outside the chamber. (B) Examples of bilateral stimuli (first stimulus delivered from the right, second from left) and unilateral stimuli (both stimuli delivered from the left) are illustrated. The mouse in the figure would be rewarded if it oriented its head toward the side where the second stimulus had been delivered (bottom panels) following the illumination of the light-emitting diode (LED) in the center of the array of three LEDs. SOA, stimulus onset asynchrony. (C, D) Cumulative ratio of task achievement in unilateral (broken lines) and bilateral (solid lines) trials. The data in C and D are for the test group (n = 5) and the unilateral group (n = 5), respectively. (E) Performance of temporal order judgment in the test group. The order-judgment probability that the right-side whiskers were stimulated earlier than the left-side whiskers is plotted against the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). A positive SOA indicates that the right-side whiskers were stimulated first. The response was fitted with a sigmoid function (r2 = 0.86) with asymptotes of 0.34 and 0.78, a temporal resolution of 173 ms, and a horizontal bias of 121 ms. (F) Performance of spatial orienting in the unilateral group. The probability of rightward orienting is plotted against the SOA. Positive and negative SOA values indicate that stimuli were delivered to the right (right-right) and the left (left-left), respectively. (A), (B), (C) and (E) were derived from Fig. 1A, C, Fig. 3A and Fig. 6A of Wada et al.[20], respectively.
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pone-0010483-g001: Apparatus (A), task procedures (B), and task performances (C–F).(A) Overhead and front views of the apparatus. Two pairs of tubes were placed vertically within the nose-poking chamber to deliver successive puffs of air (stimuli) to the whiskers. One tube (dummy) of each pair delivered air-puffs outside the chamber. (B) Examples of bilateral stimuli (first stimulus delivered from the right, second from left) and unilateral stimuli (both stimuli delivered from the left) are illustrated. The mouse in the figure would be rewarded if it oriented its head toward the side where the second stimulus had been delivered (bottom panels) following the illumination of the light-emitting diode (LED) in the center of the array of three LEDs. SOA, stimulus onset asynchrony. (C, D) Cumulative ratio of task achievement in unilateral (broken lines) and bilateral (solid lines) trials. The data in C and D are for the test group (n = 5) and the unilateral group (n = 5), respectively. (E) Performance of temporal order judgment in the test group. The order-judgment probability that the right-side whiskers were stimulated earlier than the left-side whiskers is plotted against the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). A positive SOA indicates that the right-side whiskers were stimulated first. The response was fitted with a sigmoid function (r2 = 0.86) with asymptotes of 0.34 and 0.78, a temporal resolution of 173 ms, and a horizontal bias of 121 ms. (F) Performance of spatial orienting in the unilateral group. The probability of rightward orienting is plotted against the SOA. Positive and negative SOA values indicate that stimuli were delivered to the right (right-right) and the left (left-left), respectively. (A), (B), (C) and (E) were derived from Fig. 1A, C, Fig. 3A and Fig. 6A of Wada et al.[20], respectively.

Mentions: Mice were trained and tested in an operant box (Fig. 1A) that was designed specifically for our study (O'Hara & Co., Tokyo, Japan) as described elsewhere [20]. Briefly, the box consisted of a large main chamber and a smaller nose-poking chamber (Fig. 1A). In the nose-poking chamber, there was a small, round hole in the center (5 mm in diameter) into which the mouse poked its nose. Two pairs of tubes were placed vertically within the nose-poking chamber to deliver a puff of air (the stimulus) to the long whiskers.


c-Fos expression during temporal order judgment in mice.

Wada M, Higo N, Moizumi S, Kitazawa S - PLoS ONE (2010)

Apparatus (A), task procedures (B), and task performances (C–F).(A) Overhead and front views of the apparatus. Two pairs of tubes were placed vertically within the nose-poking chamber to deliver successive puffs of air (stimuli) to the whiskers. One tube (dummy) of each pair delivered air-puffs outside the chamber. (B) Examples of bilateral stimuli (first stimulus delivered from the right, second from left) and unilateral stimuli (both stimuli delivered from the left) are illustrated. The mouse in the figure would be rewarded if it oriented its head toward the side where the second stimulus had been delivered (bottom panels) following the illumination of the light-emitting diode (LED) in the center of the array of three LEDs. SOA, stimulus onset asynchrony. (C, D) Cumulative ratio of task achievement in unilateral (broken lines) and bilateral (solid lines) trials. The data in C and D are for the test group (n = 5) and the unilateral group (n = 5), respectively. (E) Performance of temporal order judgment in the test group. The order-judgment probability that the right-side whiskers were stimulated earlier than the left-side whiskers is plotted against the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). A positive SOA indicates that the right-side whiskers were stimulated first. The response was fitted with a sigmoid function (r2 = 0.86) with asymptotes of 0.34 and 0.78, a temporal resolution of 173 ms, and a horizontal bias of 121 ms. (F) Performance of spatial orienting in the unilateral group. The probability of rightward orienting is plotted against the SOA. Positive and negative SOA values indicate that stimuli were delivered to the right (right-right) and the left (left-left), respectively. (A), (B), (C) and (E) were derived from Fig. 1A, C, Fig. 3A and Fig. 6A of Wada et al.[20], respectively.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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pone-0010483-g001: Apparatus (A), task procedures (B), and task performances (C–F).(A) Overhead and front views of the apparatus. Two pairs of tubes were placed vertically within the nose-poking chamber to deliver successive puffs of air (stimuli) to the whiskers. One tube (dummy) of each pair delivered air-puffs outside the chamber. (B) Examples of bilateral stimuli (first stimulus delivered from the right, second from left) and unilateral stimuli (both stimuli delivered from the left) are illustrated. The mouse in the figure would be rewarded if it oriented its head toward the side where the second stimulus had been delivered (bottom panels) following the illumination of the light-emitting diode (LED) in the center of the array of three LEDs. SOA, stimulus onset asynchrony. (C, D) Cumulative ratio of task achievement in unilateral (broken lines) and bilateral (solid lines) trials. The data in C and D are for the test group (n = 5) and the unilateral group (n = 5), respectively. (E) Performance of temporal order judgment in the test group. The order-judgment probability that the right-side whiskers were stimulated earlier than the left-side whiskers is plotted against the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). A positive SOA indicates that the right-side whiskers were stimulated first. The response was fitted with a sigmoid function (r2 = 0.86) with asymptotes of 0.34 and 0.78, a temporal resolution of 173 ms, and a horizontal bias of 121 ms. (F) Performance of spatial orienting in the unilateral group. The probability of rightward orienting is plotted against the SOA. Positive and negative SOA values indicate that stimuli were delivered to the right (right-right) and the left (left-left), respectively. (A), (B), (C) and (E) were derived from Fig. 1A, C, Fig. 3A and Fig. 6A of Wada et al.[20], respectively.
Mentions: Mice were trained and tested in an operant box (Fig. 1A) that was designed specifically for our study (O'Hara & Co., Tokyo, Japan) as described elsewhere [20]. Briefly, the box consisted of a large main chamber and a smaller nose-poking chamber (Fig. 1A). In the nose-poking chamber, there was a small, round hole in the center (5 mm in diameter) into which the mouse poked its nose. Two pairs of tubes were placed vertically within the nose-poking chamber to deliver a puff of air (the stimulus) to the long whiskers.

Bottom Line: The expression of c-Fos was significantly higher in the test group than in the other groups in the bilateral barrel fields of the primary somatosensory cortex, the left secondary somatosensory cortex, the dorsal part of the right secondary auditory cortex.Laminar analyses in the primary somatosensory cortex revealed that c-Fos expression in the test group was most evident in layers II and III, where callosal fibers project.The results suggest that temporal order judgment involves processing bilateral somatosensory signals through the supragranular layers of the primary sensory cortex and in the multimodal sensory areas, including marginal zone between the primary somatosensory cortex and the secondary sensory cortex.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. m-wada@juntendo.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
The neuronal mechanisms for ordering sensory signals in time still need to be clarified despite a long history of research. To address this issue, we recently developed a behavioral task of temporal order judgment in mice. In the present study, we examined the expression of c-Fos, a marker of neural activation, in mice just after they carried out the temporal order judgment task. The expression of c-Fos was examined in C57BL/6N mice (male, n = 5) that were trained to judge the order of two air-puff stimuli delivered bilaterally to the right and left whiskers with stimulation intervals of 50-750 ms. The mice were rewarded with a food pellet when they responded by orienting their head toward the first stimulus (n = 2) or toward the second stimulus (n = 3) after a visual "go" signal. c-Fos-stained cell densities of these mice (test group) were compared with those of two control groups in coronal brain sections prepared at bregma -2, -1, 0, +1, and +2 mm by applying statistical parametric mapping to the c-Fos immuno-stained sections. The expression of c-Fos was significantly higher in the test group than in the other groups in the bilateral barrel fields of the primary somatosensory cortex, the left secondary somatosensory cortex, the dorsal part of the right secondary auditory cortex. Laminar analyses in the primary somatosensory cortex revealed that c-Fos expression in the test group was most evident in layers II and III, where callosal fibers project. The results suggest that temporal order judgment involves processing bilateral somatosensory signals through the supragranular layers of the primary sensory cortex and in the multimodal sensory areas, including marginal zone between the primary somatosensory cortex and the secondary sensory cortex.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus