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A glucose biofuel cell implanted in rats.

Cinquin P, Gondran C, Giroud F, Mazabrard S, Pellissier A, Boucher F, Alcaraz JP, Gorgy K, Lenouvel F, Mathé S, Porcu P, Cosnier S - PLoS ONE (2010)

Bottom Line: The breakthrough relies on the design of a new family of GBFCs, characterized by an innovative and simple mechanical confinement of various enzymes and redox mediators: enzymes are no longer covalently bound to the surface of the electron collectors, which enables use of a wide variety of enzymes and redox mediators, augments the quantity of active enzymes, and simplifies GBFC construction.Our most efficient GBFC was based on composite graphite discs containing glucose oxidase and ubiquinone at the anode, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and quinone at the cathode.This GBFC, with electrodes of 0.133 mL, produced a peak specific power of 24.4 microW mL(-1), which is better than pacemakers' requirements and paves the way for the development of a new generation of implantable artificial organs, covering a wide range of medical applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire TIMC-IMAG (Techniques de l'Ingénierie Médicale et de la Complexité - Informatique, Mathématiques et Applications de Grenoble), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France. Philippe.Cinquin@imag.fr

ABSTRACT
Powering future generations of implanted medical devices will require cumbersome transcutaneous energy transfer or harvesting energy from the human body. No functional solution that harvests power from the body is currently available, despite attempts to use the Seebeck thermoelectric effect, vibrations or body movements. Glucose fuel cells appear more promising, since they produce electrical energy from glucose and dioxygen, two substrates present in physiological fluids. The most powerful ones, Glucose BioFuel Cells (GBFCs), are based on enzymes electrically wired by redox mediators. However, GBFCs cannot be implanted in animals, mainly because the enzymes they rely on either require low pH or are inhibited by chloride or urate anions, present in the Extra Cellular Fluid (ECF). Here we present the first functional implantable GBFC, working in the retroperitoneal space of freely moving rats. The breakthrough relies on the design of a new family of GBFCs, characterized by an innovative and simple mechanical confinement of various enzymes and redox mediators: enzymes are no longer covalently bound to the surface of the electron collectors, which enables use of a wide variety of enzymes and redox mediators, augments the quantity of active enzymes, and simplifies GBFC construction. Our most efficient GBFC was based on composite graphite discs containing glucose oxidase and ubiquinone at the anode, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and quinone at the cathode. PPO reduces dioxygen into water, at pH 7 and in the presence of chloride ions and urates at physiological concentrations. This GBFC, with electrodes of 0.133 mL, produced a peak specific power of 24.4 microW mL(-1), which is better than pacemakers' requirements and paves the way for the development of a new generation of implantable artificial organs, covering a wide range of medical applications.

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Summary of the principle, preparation, implantation and operation of an implantable “Quinone-Ubiquinone Glucose BioFuel Cell”.(A) GBFC principle. The anode is constituted of a compacted graphite disc containing ubiquinone, glucose oxidase (GOX) and catalase, while the cathode is composed of a compacted graphite disc containing quinhydrone and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The cathode is inserted in a dialysis bag (cut-off 100 g mol−1), in order to prevent quinhydrone diffusion. Both electrodes are packed in an external dialysis bag (cut-off 6-8000 g mol−1) that lets glucose and dioxygen flow into the device. The current generated by the GBFC results from the oxidation of ubiquinol combined with the reduction of quinone. Ubiquinol and quinone are enzymatically generated by GOX and PPO respectively. (B) GBFC preparation and implantation. Each electrode measures 0.133 mL, so that the complete device can fit in the abdomen of the animal. The rat is anesthetized, a median laparotomy is performed, and the GBFC is inserted into the retroperitoneal space in left lateral position. The catheters containing the copper wires connected to the anode and cathode are subcutaneously tunnelled from the abdomen up to the back of the head of the animal, and connected to the potentiostat. Finally, the muscular abdominal wall and the skin are separately sutured and the animal is allowed to recover from anesthesia. (C) GBFC operation. 4 hours after implantation, cycles of discharge (at constant current of 10 µA) and of charge are recorded via a potentiostat until sacrifice of the animal.
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pone-0010476-g001: Summary of the principle, preparation, implantation and operation of an implantable “Quinone-Ubiquinone Glucose BioFuel Cell”.(A) GBFC principle. The anode is constituted of a compacted graphite disc containing ubiquinone, glucose oxidase (GOX) and catalase, while the cathode is composed of a compacted graphite disc containing quinhydrone and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The cathode is inserted in a dialysis bag (cut-off 100 g mol−1), in order to prevent quinhydrone diffusion. Both electrodes are packed in an external dialysis bag (cut-off 6-8000 g mol−1) that lets glucose and dioxygen flow into the device. The current generated by the GBFC results from the oxidation of ubiquinol combined with the reduction of quinone. Ubiquinol and quinone are enzymatically generated by GOX and PPO respectively. (B) GBFC preparation and implantation. Each electrode measures 0.133 mL, so that the complete device can fit in the abdomen of the animal. The rat is anesthetized, a median laparotomy is performed, and the GBFC is inserted into the retroperitoneal space in left lateral position. The catheters containing the copper wires connected to the anode and cathode are subcutaneously tunnelled from the abdomen up to the back of the head of the animal, and connected to the potentiostat. Finally, the muscular abdominal wall and the skin are separately sutured and the animal is allowed to recover from anesthesia. (C) GBFC operation. 4 hours after implantation, cycles of discharge (at constant current of 10 µA) and of charge are recorded via a potentiostat until sacrifice of the animal.

Mentions: In contrast to current GBFCs, where enzymes and redox mediators are covalently bound to the electrode, we mechanically confined the contents of the electrodes, by use of dialysis membranes and/or mechanical compression of graphite particles, enzymes and redox mediators (Materials and Methods). This process, summarized in Figure 1, required simple procedures involving classical chemicals and materials, and allowed use of soluble (quinone, hydroquinone) or poorly-soluble (ubiquinone, ubiquinol) redox mediators, and of different enzymes (GOX at the anode, PPO or urease at the cathode). One of these GBFCs used as fuel not only glucose, but also urea.


A glucose biofuel cell implanted in rats.

Cinquin P, Gondran C, Giroud F, Mazabrard S, Pellissier A, Boucher F, Alcaraz JP, Gorgy K, Lenouvel F, Mathé S, Porcu P, Cosnier S - PLoS ONE (2010)

Summary of the principle, preparation, implantation and operation of an implantable “Quinone-Ubiquinone Glucose BioFuel Cell”.(A) GBFC principle. The anode is constituted of a compacted graphite disc containing ubiquinone, glucose oxidase (GOX) and catalase, while the cathode is composed of a compacted graphite disc containing quinhydrone and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The cathode is inserted in a dialysis bag (cut-off 100 g mol−1), in order to prevent quinhydrone diffusion. Both electrodes are packed in an external dialysis bag (cut-off 6-8000 g mol−1) that lets glucose and dioxygen flow into the device. The current generated by the GBFC results from the oxidation of ubiquinol combined with the reduction of quinone. Ubiquinol and quinone are enzymatically generated by GOX and PPO respectively. (B) GBFC preparation and implantation. Each electrode measures 0.133 mL, so that the complete device can fit in the abdomen of the animal. The rat is anesthetized, a median laparotomy is performed, and the GBFC is inserted into the retroperitoneal space in left lateral position. The catheters containing the copper wires connected to the anode and cathode are subcutaneously tunnelled from the abdomen up to the back of the head of the animal, and connected to the potentiostat. Finally, the muscular abdominal wall and the skin are separately sutured and the animal is allowed to recover from anesthesia. (C) GBFC operation. 4 hours after implantation, cycles of discharge (at constant current of 10 µA) and of charge are recorded via a potentiostat until sacrifice of the animal.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2864295&req=5

pone-0010476-g001: Summary of the principle, preparation, implantation and operation of an implantable “Quinone-Ubiquinone Glucose BioFuel Cell”.(A) GBFC principle. The anode is constituted of a compacted graphite disc containing ubiquinone, glucose oxidase (GOX) and catalase, while the cathode is composed of a compacted graphite disc containing quinhydrone and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The cathode is inserted in a dialysis bag (cut-off 100 g mol−1), in order to prevent quinhydrone diffusion. Both electrodes are packed in an external dialysis bag (cut-off 6-8000 g mol−1) that lets glucose and dioxygen flow into the device. The current generated by the GBFC results from the oxidation of ubiquinol combined with the reduction of quinone. Ubiquinol and quinone are enzymatically generated by GOX and PPO respectively. (B) GBFC preparation and implantation. Each electrode measures 0.133 mL, so that the complete device can fit in the abdomen of the animal. The rat is anesthetized, a median laparotomy is performed, and the GBFC is inserted into the retroperitoneal space in left lateral position. The catheters containing the copper wires connected to the anode and cathode are subcutaneously tunnelled from the abdomen up to the back of the head of the animal, and connected to the potentiostat. Finally, the muscular abdominal wall and the skin are separately sutured and the animal is allowed to recover from anesthesia. (C) GBFC operation. 4 hours after implantation, cycles of discharge (at constant current of 10 µA) and of charge are recorded via a potentiostat until sacrifice of the animal.
Mentions: In contrast to current GBFCs, where enzymes and redox mediators are covalently bound to the electrode, we mechanically confined the contents of the electrodes, by use of dialysis membranes and/or mechanical compression of graphite particles, enzymes and redox mediators (Materials and Methods). This process, summarized in Figure 1, required simple procedures involving classical chemicals and materials, and allowed use of soluble (quinone, hydroquinone) or poorly-soluble (ubiquinone, ubiquinol) redox mediators, and of different enzymes (GOX at the anode, PPO or urease at the cathode). One of these GBFCs used as fuel not only glucose, but also urea.

Bottom Line: The breakthrough relies on the design of a new family of GBFCs, characterized by an innovative and simple mechanical confinement of various enzymes and redox mediators: enzymes are no longer covalently bound to the surface of the electron collectors, which enables use of a wide variety of enzymes and redox mediators, augments the quantity of active enzymes, and simplifies GBFC construction.Our most efficient GBFC was based on composite graphite discs containing glucose oxidase and ubiquinone at the anode, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and quinone at the cathode.This GBFC, with electrodes of 0.133 mL, produced a peak specific power of 24.4 microW mL(-1), which is better than pacemakers' requirements and paves the way for the development of a new generation of implantable artificial organs, covering a wide range of medical applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire TIMC-IMAG (Techniques de l'Ingénierie Médicale et de la Complexité - Informatique, Mathématiques et Applications de Grenoble), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France. Philippe.Cinquin@imag.fr

ABSTRACT
Powering future generations of implanted medical devices will require cumbersome transcutaneous energy transfer or harvesting energy from the human body. No functional solution that harvests power from the body is currently available, despite attempts to use the Seebeck thermoelectric effect, vibrations or body movements. Glucose fuel cells appear more promising, since they produce electrical energy from glucose and dioxygen, two substrates present in physiological fluids. The most powerful ones, Glucose BioFuel Cells (GBFCs), are based on enzymes electrically wired by redox mediators. However, GBFCs cannot be implanted in animals, mainly because the enzymes they rely on either require low pH or are inhibited by chloride or urate anions, present in the Extra Cellular Fluid (ECF). Here we present the first functional implantable GBFC, working in the retroperitoneal space of freely moving rats. The breakthrough relies on the design of a new family of GBFCs, characterized by an innovative and simple mechanical confinement of various enzymes and redox mediators: enzymes are no longer covalently bound to the surface of the electron collectors, which enables use of a wide variety of enzymes and redox mediators, augments the quantity of active enzymes, and simplifies GBFC construction. Our most efficient GBFC was based on composite graphite discs containing glucose oxidase and ubiquinone at the anode, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and quinone at the cathode. PPO reduces dioxygen into water, at pH 7 and in the presence of chloride ions and urates at physiological concentrations. This GBFC, with electrodes of 0.133 mL, produced a peak specific power of 24.4 microW mL(-1), which is better than pacemakers' requirements and paves the way for the development of a new generation of implantable artificial organs, covering a wide range of medical applications.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus