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The increase of Lactobacillus species in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks is associated with weight gain.

Angelakis E, Raoult D - PLoS ONE (2010)

Bottom Line: Liver mass was also significantly higher in inoculated animals compared to the control group.The ratio of DNA copies of Firmicutes to those of Bacteroidetes increased to as much as 6,4 in chicks and 8,3 in ducks.Differences in the intestinal microbiota may precede weight increase, as we found that an increase of Lactobacillus sp. in newborn ducks and chicks preceded the development of weight gain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unité des Rickettsies, CNRS UMR 6020, IFR 48, Faculté de Médecine, Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France.

ABSTRACT

Background: A bacterial role in the obesity pandemic has been suspected based on the ingestion of probiotics that can modify the gut flora. The objective of our study was to determine if increased Lactobacillus sp. in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks could result in weight gain increase.

Methodology: Female broiler chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) and ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) were separated into one control and two experimental groups, and inoculated once or twice with 4x10(10)Lactobacillus spp. per animal in PBS, or with PBS alone. Fecal samples were collected before and at 24 hours, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 30 days after the inoculation. DNA was extracted from the stools, and qPCR assays were performed on a MX3000 system for the detection and quantification of Lactobacillus sp., Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, using a quantification plasmid. Animals were measured and sacrificed 60 days after the beginning of the experiment, and livers were collected and measured.

Principal findings: Chicks inoculated once and twice with Lactobacillus weighed 10.2% (p = 0.0162) and 13.5% (p = 0.0064) more than the control group animals, respectively. Similarly, ducks inoculated once and twice weighed 7.7% (p = 0.05) and 14% (p = 0.035) more than those in the control group, respectively. Liver mass was also significantly higher in inoculated animals compared to the control group. Inoculation with Lactobacillus sp. increased the DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. and Firmicutes in the stools. Bacteroidetes remained stable, and only the second Lactobacillus sp. inoculation significantly decreased its population in chicks. The ratio of DNA copies of Firmicutes to those of Bacteroidetes increased to as much as 6,4 in chicks and 8,3 in ducks.

Conclusions: Differences in the intestinal microbiota may precede weight increase, as we found that an increase of Lactobacillus sp. in newborn ducks and chicks preceded the development of weight gain.

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Changes in the population of Lactobacillus spp, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes between the control and the experimental groups in ducks.Results were based on the mean number of DNA copies of a quantification plasmid [31]. Tm, control group; G1, ducks inoculated once with Lactobacillus spp.; G2, ducks inoculated twice with Lactobacillus spp.
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pone-0010463-g002: Changes in the population of Lactobacillus spp, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes between the control and the experimental groups in ducks.Results were based on the mean number of DNA copies of a quantification plasmid [31]. Tm, control group; G1, ducks inoculated once with Lactobacillus spp.; G2, ducks inoculated twice with Lactobacillus spp.

Mentions: qPCR revealed that before the inoculation, there was no difference between the experimental and control groups in the mean numbers of DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp., Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and the numbers remained constant in the control group during the 30 days of the experiment (Figure 2). A significant difference was observed in the number of DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. on day 2 after inoculation between the control group (1.22×1010 DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp.) and the two experimental groups (p = 0.032 and p = 0.02, respectively). The mean number of DNA copies of Firmicutes on day 2 was significantly different between the control and the two experimental groups (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively). Ducks inoculated twice on day 8 displayed significantly more DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. than did the control group (p = 0.01) and chicks inoculated once (p = 0.05). At that time point, the amount of DNA copies of Firmicutes were also significantly different between ducks inoculated twice and those inoculated once (p = 0.04) and between ducks inoculated twice and the control group (p = 0.02). Between the control group and the ducks inoculated once, no changes were observed in the amount of DNA copies of Lactobacillus and Firmicutes after day 8 (p = 0.08 and p = 0.7, respectively). Between the control group and the ducks inoculated twice, no changes were found in the amount of DNA copies of Lactobacillus and Firmicutes on day 30 (p = 0.08 and p = 0.7, respectively). The mean number of DNA copies of Bacteroidetes was not significantly different between animals in the control group and animals inoculated once (largest difference on day 4, p = 0.098) or twice (largest difference on day 8, p = 0.065).


The increase of Lactobacillus species in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks is associated with weight gain.

Angelakis E, Raoult D - PLoS ONE (2010)

Changes in the population of Lactobacillus spp, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes between the control and the experimental groups in ducks.Results were based on the mean number of DNA copies of a quantification plasmid [31]. Tm, control group; G1, ducks inoculated once with Lactobacillus spp.; G2, ducks inoculated twice with Lactobacillus spp.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2864268&req=5

pone-0010463-g002: Changes in the population of Lactobacillus spp, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes between the control and the experimental groups in ducks.Results were based on the mean number of DNA copies of a quantification plasmid [31]. Tm, control group; G1, ducks inoculated once with Lactobacillus spp.; G2, ducks inoculated twice with Lactobacillus spp.
Mentions: qPCR revealed that before the inoculation, there was no difference between the experimental and control groups in the mean numbers of DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp., Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and the numbers remained constant in the control group during the 30 days of the experiment (Figure 2). A significant difference was observed in the number of DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. on day 2 after inoculation between the control group (1.22×1010 DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp.) and the two experimental groups (p = 0.032 and p = 0.02, respectively). The mean number of DNA copies of Firmicutes on day 2 was significantly different between the control and the two experimental groups (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively). Ducks inoculated twice on day 8 displayed significantly more DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. than did the control group (p = 0.01) and chicks inoculated once (p = 0.05). At that time point, the amount of DNA copies of Firmicutes were also significantly different between ducks inoculated twice and those inoculated once (p = 0.04) and between ducks inoculated twice and the control group (p = 0.02). Between the control group and the ducks inoculated once, no changes were observed in the amount of DNA copies of Lactobacillus and Firmicutes after day 8 (p = 0.08 and p = 0.7, respectively). Between the control group and the ducks inoculated twice, no changes were found in the amount of DNA copies of Lactobacillus and Firmicutes on day 30 (p = 0.08 and p = 0.7, respectively). The mean number of DNA copies of Bacteroidetes was not significantly different between animals in the control group and animals inoculated once (largest difference on day 4, p = 0.098) or twice (largest difference on day 8, p = 0.065).

Bottom Line: Liver mass was also significantly higher in inoculated animals compared to the control group.The ratio of DNA copies of Firmicutes to those of Bacteroidetes increased to as much as 6,4 in chicks and 8,3 in ducks.Differences in the intestinal microbiota may precede weight increase, as we found that an increase of Lactobacillus sp. in newborn ducks and chicks preceded the development of weight gain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unité des Rickettsies, CNRS UMR 6020, IFR 48, Faculté de Médecine, Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France.

ABSTRACT

Background: A bacterial role in the obesity pandemic has been suspected based on the ingestion of probiotics that can modify the gut flora. The objective of our study was to determine if increased Lactobacillus sp. in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks could result in weight gain increase.

Methodology: Female broiler chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) and ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) were separated into one control and two experimental groups, and inoculated once or twice with 4x10(10)Lactobacillus spp. per animal in PBS, or with PBS alone. Fecal samples were collected before and at 24 hours, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 30 days after the inoculation. DNA was extracted from the stools, and qPCR assays were performed on a MX3000 system for the detection and quantification of Lactobacillus sp., Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, using a quantification plasmid. Animals were measured and sacrificed 60 days after the beginning of the experiment, and livers were collected and measured.

Principal findings: Chicks inoculated once and twice with Lactobacillus weighed 10.2% (p = 0.0162) and 13.5% (p = 0.0064) more than the control group animals, respectively. Similarly, ducks inoculated once and twice weighed 7.7% (p = 0.05) and 14% (p = 0.035) more than those in the control group, respectively. Liver mass was also significantly higher in inoculated animals compared to the control group. Inoculation with Lactobacillus sp. increased the DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. and Firmicutes in the stools. Bacteroidetes remained stable, and only the second Lactobacillus sp. inoculation significantly decreased its population in chicks. The ratio of DNA copies of Firmicutes to those of Bacteroidetes increased to as much as 6,4 in chicks and 8,3 in ducks.

Conclusions: Differences in the intestinal microbiota may precede weight increase, as we found that an increase of Lactobacillus sp. in newborn ducks and chicks preceded the development of weight gain.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus