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The increase of Lactobacillus species in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks is associated with weight gain.

Angelakis E, Raoult D - PLoS ONE (2010)

Bottom Line: Liver mass was also significantly higher in inoculated animals compared to the control group.The ratio of DNA copies of Firmicutes to those of Bacteroidetes increased to as much as 6,4 in chicks and 8,3 in ducks.Differences in the intestinal microbiota may precede weight increase, as we found that an increase of Lactobacillus sp. in newborn ducks and chicks preceded the development of weight gain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unité des Rickettsies, CNRS UMR 6020, IFR 48, Faculté de Médecine, Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France.

ABSTRACT

Background: A bacterial role in the obesity pandemic has been suspected based on the ingestion of probiotics that can modify the gut flora. The objective of our study was to determine if increased Lactobacillus sp. in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks could result in weight gain increase.

Methodology: Female broiler chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) and ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) were separated into one control and two experimental groups, and inoculated once or twice with 4x10(10)Lactobacillus spp. per animal in PBS, or with PBS alone. Fecal samples were collected before and at 24 hours, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 30 days after the inoculation. DNA was extracted from the stools, and qPCR assays were performed on a MX3000 system for the detection and quantification of Lactobacillus sp., Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, using a quantification plasmid. Animals were measured and sacrificed 60 days after the beginning of the experiment, and livers were collected and measured.

Principal findings: Chicks inoculated once and twice with Lactobacillus weighed 10.2% (p = 0.0162) and 13.5% (p = 0.0064) more than the control group animals, respectively. Similarly, ducks inoculated once and twice weighed 7.7% (p = 0.05) and 14% (p = 0.035) more than those in the control group, respectively. Liver mass was also significantly higher in inoculated animals compared to the control group. Inoculation with Lactobacillus sp. increased the DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. and Firmicutes in the stools. Bacteroidetes remained stable, and only the second Lactobacillus sp. inoculation significantly decreased its population in chicks. The ratio of DNA copies of Firmicutes to those of Bacteroidetes increased to as much as 6,4 in chicks and 8,3 in ducks.

Conclusions: Differences in the intestinal microbiota may precede weight increase, as we found that an increase of Lactobacillus sp. in newborn ducks and chicks preceded the development of weight gain.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Changes in the population of Lactobacillus spp, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes between the control and the experimental groups in chicks.Results were based on the mean number of DNA copies of a quantification plasmid [31]. Tm, control group; G1, chicks inoculated once with Lactobacillus spp.; G2, chicks inoculated twice with Lactobacillus spp.
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pone-0010463-g001: Changes in the population of Lactobacillus spp, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes between the control and the experimental groups in chicks.Results were based on the mean number of DNA copies of a quantification plasmid [31]. Tm, control group; G1, chicks inoculated once with Lactobacillus spp.; G2, chicks inoculated twice with Lactobacillus spp.

Mentions: Before the inoculation there was no difference between the experimental and the control groups with respect to the mean number of DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp., Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and the numbers remained constant in the control group till day 30 (p<0.05) (Figure 1). On day 2, a significant difference was found in the number of DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. between the control group and the two experimental groups (p = 0.046 and p = 0.041, respectively). Similarly, on day 2, the numbers of DNA copies of Firmicutes were significantly higher in the two experimental groups (p = 0.029 and p = 0.039, respectively) compared to the control group. Animals inoculated twice on day 8 presented significantly more DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. than did the control group (p = 0.013) and the animals inoculated only once (p = 0.04). Animals inoculated twice on day 8 presented significantly more DNA copies of Firmicutes compared to the control group (p = 0.042), whereas no significant changes on day 8 were observed for DNA copies of Firmicutes between animals inoculated once and twice (p = 0.086). Between the control group and the chicks inoculated once, no changes were found in the amount of DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. or Firmicutes after day 16 (p = 0.54 and p = 0.11, respectively). Between the control group and the chicks inoculated twice, no changes were observed in the amount of DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. after day 16 (p = 0.3) or in the amount of Firmicutes after day 30 (p = 0.9). The mean number of DNA copies of Bacteroidetes was not significantly different between animals in the control group and animals inoculated once during the 30 days of the experiment. Between the control group and animals inoculated twice, a significant difference in the number of DNA copies on day 8 was only found for Bacteroidetes (p = 0.047).


The increase of Lactobacillus species in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks is associated with weight gain.

Angelakis E, Raoult D - PLoS ONE (2010)

Changes in the population of Lactobacillus spp, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes between the control and the experimental groups in chicks.Results were based on the mean number of DNA copies of a quantification plasmid [31]. Tm, control group; G1, chicks inoculated once with Lactobacillus spp.; G2, chicks inoculated twice with Lactobacillus spp.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2864268&req=5

pone-0010463-g001: Changes in the population of Lactobacillus spp, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes between the control and the experimental groups in chicks.Results were based on the mean number of DNA copies of a quantification plasmid [31]. Tm, control group; G1, chicks inoculated once with Lactobacillus spp.; G2, chicks inoculated twice with Lactobacillus spp.
Mentions: Before the inoculation there was no difference between the experimental and the control groups with respect to the mean number of DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp., Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and the numbers remained constant in the control group till day 30 (p<0.05) (Figure 1). On day 2, a significant difference was found in the number of DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. between the control group and the two experimental groups (p = 0.046 and p = 0.041, respectively). Similarly, on day 2, the numbers of DNA copies of Firmicutes were significantly higher in the two experimental groups (p = 0.029 and p = 0.039, respectively) compared to the control group. Animals inoculated twice on day 8 presented significantly more DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. than did the control group (p = 0.013) and the animals inoculated only once (p = 0.04). Animals inoculated twice on day 8 presented significantly more DNA copies of Firmicutes compared to the control group (p = 0.042), whereas no significant changes on day 8 were observed for DNA copies of Firmicutes between animals inoculated once and twice (p = 0.086). Between the control group and the chicks inoculated once, no changes were found in the amount of DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. or Firmicutes after day 16 (p = 0.54 and p = 0.11, respectively). Between the control group and the chicks inoculated twice, no changes were observed in the amount of DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. after day 16 (p = 0.3) or in the amount of Firmicutes after day 30 (p = 0.9). The mean number of DNA copies of Bacteroidetes was not significantly different between animals in the control group and animals inoculated once during the 30 days of the experiment. Between the control group and animals inoculated twice, a significant difference in the number of DNA copies on day 8 was only found for Bacteroidetes (p = 0.047).

Bottom Line: Liver mass was also significantly higher in inoculated animals compared to the control group.The ratio of DNA copies of Firmicutes to those of Bacteroidetes increased to as much as 6,4 in chicks and 8,3 in ducks.Differences in the intestinal microbiota may precede weight increase, as we found that an increase of Lactobacillus sp. in newborn ducks and chicks preceded the development of weight gain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unité des Rickettsies, CNRS UMR 6020, IFR 48, Faculté de Médecine, Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France.

ABSTRACT

Background: A bacterial role in the obesity pandemic has been suspected based on the ingestion of probiotics that can modify the gut flora. The objective of our study was to determine if increased Lactobacillus sp. in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks could result in weight gain increase.

Methodology: Female broiler chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) and ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) were separated into one control and two experimental groups, and inoculated once or twice with 4x10(10)Lactobacillus spp. per animal in PBS, or with PBS alone. Fecal samples were collected before and at 24 hours, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 30 days after the inoculation. DNA was extracted from the stools, and qPCR assays were performed on a MX3000 system for the detection and quantification of Lactobacillus sp., Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, using a quantification plasmid. Animals were measured and sacrificed 60 days after the beginning of the experiment, and livers were collected and measured.

Principal findings: Chicks inoculated once and twice with Lactobacillus weighed 10.2% (p = 0.0162) and 13.5% (p = 0.0064) more than the control group animals, respectively. Similarly, ducks inoculated once and twice weighed 7.7% (p = 0.05) and 14% (p = 0.035) more than those in the control group, respectively. Liver mass was also significantly higher in inoculated animals compared to the control group. Inoculation with Lactobacillus sp. increased the DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. and Firmicutes in the stools. Bacteroidetes remained stable, and only the second Lactobacillus sp. inoculation significantly decreased its population in chicks. The ratio of DNA copies of Firmicutes to those of Bacteroidetes increased to as much as 6,4 in chicks and 8,3 in ducks.

Conclusions: Differences in the intestinal microbiota may precede weight increase, as we found that an increase of Lactobacillus sp. in newborn ducks and chicks preceded the development of weight gain.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus