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Visual target selection and motor planning define attentional enhancement at perceptual processing stages.

Collins T, Heed T, Röder B - Front Hum Neurosci (2010)

Bottom Line: Extracting information from the visual field can be achieved by covertly orienting attention to different regions, or by making saccades to bring areas of interest onto the fovea.While much research has shown a link between covert attention and saccade preparation, the nature of that link remains a matter of dispute.We examined attentional orienting by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) to task-irrelevant visual probes flashed during saccade preparation at four equidistant locations including the visual target location and the upcoming motor endpoint.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception, CNRS, Université Paris Descartes Paris, France.

ABSTRACT
Extracting information from the visual field can be achieved by covertly orienting attention to different regions, or by making saccades to bring areas of interest onto the fovea. While much research has shown a link between covert attention and saccade preparation, the nature of that link remains a matter of dispute. Covert presaccadic orienting could result from target selection or from planning a motor act toward an object. We examined the contribution of visual target selection and motor preparation to attentional orienting in humans by dissociating these two habitually aligned processes with saccadic adaptation. Adaptation introduces a discrepancy between the visual target evoking a saccade and the motor metrics of that saccade, which, unbeknownst to the participant, brings the eyes to a different spatial location. We examined attentional orienting by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) to task-irrelevant visual probes flashed during saccade preparation at four equidistant locations including the visual target location and the upcoming motor endpoint. ERPs as early as 130-170 ms post-probe were modulated by attention at both the visual target and motor endpoint locations. These results indicate that both target selection and motor preparation determine the focus of spatial attention, resulting in enhanced processing of stimuli at early visual-perceptual stages.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Grand averaged ERPs to each of the four probes in the pre-adaptation cued condition, from an example cluster (central posterior, depicted in each map) (probe located at 0°, black; 22. 5°, blue dashed; 45°, red; 67.5°, green dashed). Topological maps below show the distribution of the effect for each probe in the second time interval (200–400 ms), corresponding to the gray shaded area in the ERP traces. (B) ERPs from an example cluster (central posterior) in the post-adaptation cued condition, and the corresponding maps for each probe. (C) Grand averaged ERPs to each probe location in the cued condition for pre-adaptation (black dashed lines) versus post-adaptation (red lines), from an example cluster (central contralateral, depicted in the maps). The gray shaded area in the ERPs corresponds to the first time interval (130–170 ms) which is also illustrated in the corresponding difference maps (pre-adaptation–post-adaptation).
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Figure 4: (A) Grand averaged ERPs to each of the four probes in the pre-adaptation cued condition, from an example cluster (central posterior, depicted in each map) (probe located at 0°, black; 22. 5°, blue dashed; 45°, red; 67.5°, green dashed). Topological maps below show the distribution of the effect for each probe in the second time interval (200–400 ms), corresponding to the gray shaded area in the ERP traces. (B) ERPs from an example cluster (central posterior) in the post-adaptation cued condition, and the corresponding maps for each probe. (C) Grand averaged ERPs to each probe location in the cued condition for pre-adaptation (black dashed lines) versus post-adaptation (red lines), from an example cluster (central contralateral, depicted in the maps). The gray shaded area in the ERPs corresponds to the first time interval (130–170 ms) which is also illustrated in the corresponding difference maps (pre-adaptation–post-adaptation).

Mentions: We first examined whether the differential response to the probes was modified by adaptation. Figure 4 illustrates the gradual decrease of negativity in the ERPs over the four probes and the corresponding voltage maps for to the 200–400 time interval. In the pre-adaptation phase (Figure 4A), the amplitude of the ERPs (200–400 ms) was ordered from most to least negative as a function of the probe's distance from the saccade target location, thus demonstrating an attentional gradient: the most negative ERP was evoked by the probe at the saccade target, the least negative by the probe at 67.5°, with 45° and 22.5° lined up between these two. We ran an ANOVA including factors Electrode Cluster, Adaptation and Probe Location, restricting Probe Location to include probes at 0° and 45° for which we had specific hypotheses about how adaptation should influence the response. The ANOVA revealed a significant interaction of Adaptation and Probe Location in the 200–400 ms time interval [F(1,13) = 4.6, p < 0.05]. The difference between the two probes was significant in the pre-adaptation phase [F(1,13) = 7.7, p < 0.016] but not in the post-adaptation phase (F < 1)1.


Visual target selection and motor planning define attentional enhancement at perceptual processing stages.

Collins T, Heed T, Röder B - Front Hum Neurosci (2010)

(A) Grand averaged ERPs to each of the four probes in the pre-adaptation cued condition, from an example cluster (central posterior, depicted in each map) (probe located at 0°, black; 22. 5°, blue dashed; 45°, red; 67.5°, green dashed). Topological maps below show the distribution of the effect for each probe in the second time interval (200–400 ms), corresponding to the gray shaded area in the ERP traces. (B) ERPs from an example cluster (central posterior) in the post-adaptation cued condition, and the corresponding maps for each probe. (C) Grand averaged ERPs to each probe location in the cued condition for pre-adaptation (black dashed lines) versus post-adaptation (red lines), from an example cluster (central contralateral, depicted in the maps). The gray shaded area in the ERPs corresponds to the first time interval (130–170 ms) which is also illustrated in the corresponding difference maps (pre-adaptation–post-adaptation).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2836756&req=5

Figure 4: (A) Grand averaged ERPs to each of the four probes in the pre-adaptation cued condition, from an example cluster (central posterior, depicted in each map) (probe located at 0°, black; 22. 5°, blue dashed; 45°, red; 67.5°, green dashed). Topological maps below show the distribution of the effect for each probe in the second time interval (200–400 ms), corresponding to the gray shaded area in the ERP traces. (B) ERPs from an example cluster (central posterior) in the post-adaptation cued condition, and the corresponding maps for each probe. (C) Grand averaged ERPs to each probe location in the cued condition for pre-adaptation (black dashed lines) versus post-adaptation (red lines), from an example cluster (central contralateral, depicted in the maps). The gray shaded area in the ERPs corresponds to the first time interval (130–170 ms) which is also illustrated in the corresponding difference maps (pre-adaptation–post-adaptation).
Mentions: We first examined whether the differential response to the probes was modified by adaptation. Figure 4 illustrates the gradual decrease of negativity in the ERPs over the four probes and the corresponding voltage maps for to the 200–400 time interval. In the pre-adaptation phase (Figure 4A), the amplitude of the ERPs (200–400 ms) was ordered from most to least negative as a function of the probe's distance from the saccade target location, thus demonstrating an attentional gradient: the most negative ERP was evoked by the probe at the saccade target, the least negative by the probe at 67.5°, with 45° and 22.5° lined up between these two. We ran an ANOVA including factors Electrode Cluster, Adaptation and Probe Location, restricting Probe Location to include probes at 0° and 45° for which we had specific hypotheses about how adaptation should influence the response. The ANOVA revealed a significant interaction of Adaptation and Probe Location in the 200–400 ms time interval [F(1,13) = 4.6, p < 0.05]. The difference between the two probes was significant in the pre-adaptation phase [F(1,13) = 7.7, p < 0.016] but not in the post-adaptation phase (F < 1)1.

Bottom Line: Extracting information from the visual field can be achieved by covertly orienting attention to different regions, or by making saccades to bring areas of interest onto the fovea.While much research has shown a link between covert attention and saccade preparation, the nature of that link remains a matter of dispute.We examined attentional orienting by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) to task-irrelevant visual probes flashed during saccade preparation at four equidistant locations including the visual target location and the upcoming motor endpoint.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception, CNRS, Université Paris Descartes Paris, France.

ABSTRACT
Extracting information from the visual field can be achieved by covertly orienting attention to different regions, or by making saccades to bring areas of interest onto the fovea. While much research has shown a link between covert attention and saccade preparation, the nature of that link remains a matter of dispute. Covert presaccadic orienting could result from target selection or from planning a motor act toward an object. We examined the contribution of visual target selection and motor preparation to attentional orienting in humans by dissociating these two habitually aligned processes with saccadic adaptation. Adaptation introduces a discrepancy between the visual target evoking a saccade and the motor metrics of that saccade, which, unbeknownst to the participant, brings the eyes to a different spatial location. We examined attentional orienting by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) to task-irrelevant visual probes flashed during saccade preparation at four equidistant locations including the visual target location and the upcoming motor endpoint. ERPs as early as 130-170 ms post-probe were modulated by attention at both the visual target and motor endpoint locations. These results indicate that both target selection and motor preparation determine the focus of spatial attention, resulting in enhanced processing of stimuli at early visual-perceptual stages.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus