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The genetic basis of interspecies host preference differences in the model parasitoid Nasonia.

Desjardins CA, Perfectti F, Bartos JD, Enders LS, Werren JH - Heredity (Edinb) (2010)

Bottom Line: The N. giraulti allele is dominant and greatly increases preference for Protocalliphora pupae in the introgression line relative to the recessive N. vitripennis allele.Through the utilization of a Nasonia genotyping microarray, we have identified the introgressed region as 16 Mb of chromosome 4, although a more complete analysis is necessary to determine the exact genetic architecture of host preference in the genus.To our knowledge, this is the first introgression of the host preference of one parasitoid species into another, as well as one of the few cases of introgression of a behavioral gene between species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA. cdesjar3@mail.rochester.edu

ABSTRACT
The genetic basis of host preference has been investigated in only a few species. It is relevant to important questions in evolutionary biology, including sympatric speciation, generalist versus specialist adaptation, and parasite-host co-evolution. Here we show that a major locus strongly influences host preference in Nasonia. Nasonia are parasitic wasps that utilize fly pupae; Nasonia vitripennis is a generalist that parasitizes a diverse set of hosts, whereas Nasonia giraulti specializes in Protocalliphora (bird blowflies). In laboratory choice experiments using Protocalliphora and Sarcophaga (flesh flies), N. vitripennis shows a preference for Sarcophaga, whereas N. giraulti shows a preference for Protocalliphora. Through a series of interspecies crosses, we have introgressed a major locus affecting host preference from N. giraulti into N. vitripennis. The N. giraulti allele is dominant and greatly increases preference for Protocalliphora pupae in the introgression line relative to the recessive N. vitripennis allele. Through the utilization of a Nasonia genotyping microarray, we have identified the introgressed region as 16 Mb of chromosome 4, although a more complete analysis is necessary to determine the exact genetic architecture of host preference in the genus. To our knowledge, this is the first introgression of the host preference of one parasitoid species into another, as well as one of the few cases of introgression of a behavioral gene between species.

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Behavior of wasps in host preference experiments. N. vitripennis strains ASymCx and peach, N. giraulti strain RV2Xu, and heterozygous bkbwg/+v introgression females were tested. Genetic content of the wasps is shown in the chromosomes to the right, with white representing N. vitripennis DNA and black representing N. giraulti DNA. As can be seen, heterozygous bkbwg/+v females contain a small region of N. giraulti DNA in a largely N. vitripennis genetic background. Wasps were given one Sarcophaga and one Protocalliphora host and observed for 4.5 hours. The percent which contacted and stung each host is shown, and error bars indicate standard error of proportions (Sokal and Rohlf, 1969). Sample size for each strain is given to the right of the strain names.
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Figure 2: Behavior of wasps in host preference experiments. N. vitripennis strains ASymCx and peach, N. giraulti strain RV2Xu, and heterozygous bkbwg/+v introgression females were tested. Genetic content of the wasps is shown in the chromosomes to the right, with white representing N. vitripennis DNA and black representing N. giraulti DNA. As can be seen, heterozygous bkbwg/+v females contain a small region of N. giraulti DNA in a largely N. vitripennis genetic background. Wasps were given one Sarcophaga and one Protocalliphora host and observed for 4.5 hours. The percent which contacted and stung each host is shown, and error bars indicate standard error of proportions (Sokal and Rohlf, 1969). Sample size for each strain is given to the right of the strain names.

Mentions: We next tested standard N. giraulti and N. vitripennis laboratory strains for host preference and acceptance. In preference tests where wasps were provided with one Sarcophaga and one Protocalliphora host, N. giraulti showed a clear preference for Protocalliphora while N. vitripennis showed a preference for Sarcophaga (see Figure 2). N. vitripennis was significantly more likely to both contact and sting Sarcophaga than Protocalliphora (contact: χ21=9.5, p<0.01; stinging: χ21=10.1, p<0.01), while N. giraulti had a significantly greater probability of contacting and stinging Protocalliphora hosts than Sarcophaga (contact: χ21=14.4, p<0.001; stinging: χ21=17.0, p<0.001). As can been seen in Figure 3, N. vitripennis also spent significantly more time on the Sarcophaga host than N. giraulti (Mann-Whitney U test, z=8.0, p<0.0001) while N. giraulti spent significantly more time on the Protocalliphora host than N. vitripennis (Mann-Whitney U test, z=6.2, p<0.0001).


The genetic basis of interspecies host preference differences in the model parasitoid Nasonia.

Desjardins CA, Perfectti F, Bartos JD, Enders LS, Werren JH - Heredity (Edinb) (2010)

Behavior of wasps in host preference experiments. N. vitripennis strains ASymCx and peach, N. giraulti strain RV2Xu, and heterozygous bkbwg/+v introgression females were tested. Genetic content of the wasps is shown in the chromosomes to the right, with white representing N. vitripennis DNA and black representing N. giraulti DNA. As can be seen, heterozygous bkbwg/+v females contain a small region of N. giraulti DNA in a largely N. vitripennis genetic background. Wasps were given one Sarcophaga and one Protocalliphora host and observed for 4.5 hours. The percent which contacted and stung each host is shown, and error bars indicate standard error of proportions (Sokal and Rohlf, 1969). Sample size for each strain is given to the right of the strain names.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2823958&req=5

Figure 2: Behavior of wasps in host preference experiments. N. vitripennis strains ASymCx and peach, N. giraulti strain RV2Xu, and heterozygous bkbwg/+v introgression females were tested. Genetic content of the wasps is shown in the chromosomes to the right, with white representing N. vitripennis DNA and black representing N. giraulti DNA. As can be seen, heterozygous bkbwg/+v females contain a small region of N. giraulti DNA in a largely N. vitripennis genetic background. Wasps were given one Sarcophaga and one Protocalliphora host and observed for 4.5 hours. The percent which contacted and stung each host is shown, and error bars indicate standard error of proportions (Sokal and Rohlf, 1969). Sample size for each strain is given to the right of the strain names.
Mentions: We next tested standard N. giraulti and N. vitripennis laboratory strains for host preference and acceptance. In preference tests where wasps were provided with one Sarcophaga and one Protocalliphora host, N. giraulti showed a clear preference for Protocalliphora while N. vitripennis showed a preference for Sarcophaga (see Figure 2). N. vitripennis was significantly more likely to both contact and sting Sarcophaga than Protocalliphora (contact: χ21=9.5, p<0.01; stinging: χ21=10.1, p<0.01), while N. giraulti had a significantly greater probability of contacting and stinging Protocalliphora hosts than Sarcophaga (contact: χ21=14.4, p<0.001; stinging: χ21=17.0, p<0.001). As can been seen in Figure 3, N. vitripennis also spent significantly more time on the Sarcophaga host than N. giraulti (Mann-Whitney U test, z=8.0, p<0.0001) while N. giraulti spent significantly more time on the Protocalliphora host than N. vitripennis (Mann-Whitney U test, z=6.2, p<0.0001).

Bottom Line: The N. giraulti allele is dominant and greatly increases preference for Protocalliphora pupae in the introgression line relative to the recessive N. vitripennis allele.Through the utilization of a Nasonia genotyping microarray, we have identified the introgressed region as 16 Mb of chromosome 4, although a more complete analysis is necessary to determine the exact genetic architecture of host preference in the genus.To our knowledge, this is the first introgression of the host preference of one parasitoid species into another, as well as one of the few cases of introgression of a behavioral gene between species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA. cdesjar3@mail.rochester.edu

ABSTRACT
The genetic basis of host preference has been investigated in only a few species. It is relevant to important questions in evolutionary biology, including sympatric speciation, generalist versus specialist adaptation, and parasite-host co-evolution. Here we show that a major locus strongly influences host preference in Nasonia. Nasonia are parasitic wasps that utilize fly pupae; Nasonia vitripennis is a generalist that parasitizes a diverse set of hosts, whereas Nasonia giraulti specializes in Protocalliphora (bird blowflies). In laboratory choice experiments using Protocalliphora and Sarcophaga (flesh flies), N. vitripennis shows a preference for Sarcophaga, whereas N. giraulti shows a preference for Protocalliphora. Through a series of interspecies crosses, we have introgressed a major locus affecting host preference from N. giraulti into N. vitripennis. The N. giraulti allele is dominant and greatly increases preference for Protocalliphora pupae in the introgression line relative to the recessive N. vitripennis allele. Through the utilization of a Nasonia genotyping microarray, we have identified the introgressed region as 16 Mb of chromosome 4, although a more complete analysis is necessary to determine the exact genetic architecture of host preference in the genus. To our knowledge, this is the first introgression of the host preference of one parasitoid species into another, as well as one of the few cases of introgression of a behavioral gene between species.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus