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Phenotypic and genetic diversity in Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae from drought and salt affected regions of Morocco.

Elboutahiri N, Thami-Alami I, Udupa SM - BMC Microbiol. (2010)

Bottom Line: The Analysis of Molecular Variance revealed that largest proportion of significant (P < 0.01) genetic variation was distributed within regions (89%) than among regions (11%).High degree of phenotypic and genotypic diversity is present in S. meliloti and S. medicae populations from marginal soils affected by salt and drought, in arid and semi-arid regions of Morocco.Some of the tolerant strains have a potential for exploitation in salt and drought affected areas for biological nitrogen fixation in alfalfa.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Centre RĂ©gional de la Recherche Agronomique de Rabat, B,P, 415, Rabat, Morocco.

ABSTRACT

Background: Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae are symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria in root nodules of forage legume alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). In Morocco, alfalfa is usually grown in marginal soils of arid and semi-arid regions frequently affected by drought, extremes of temperature and soil pH, soil salinity and heavy metals, which affect biological nitrogen fixing ability of rhizobia and productivity of the host. This study examines phenotypic diversity for tolerance to the above stresses and genotypic diversity at Repetitive Extragenic Pallindromic DNA regions of Sinorhizobium nodulating alfalfa, sampled from marginal soils of arid and semi-arid regions of Morocco.

Results: RsaI digestion of PCR amplified 16S rDNA of the 157 sampled isolates, assigned 136 isolates as S. meliloti and the rest as S. medicae. Further phenotyping of these alfalfa rhizobia for tolerance to the environmental stresses revealed a large degree of variation: 55.41%, 82.16%, 57.96% and 3.18% of the total isolates were tolerant to NaCl (>513 mM), water stress (-1.5 MPa), high temperature (40 degrees C) and low pH (3.5), respectively. Sixty-seven isolates of S. meliloti and thirteen isolates of S. medicae that were tolerant to salinity were also tolerant to water stress. Most of the isolates of the two species showed tolerance to heavy metals (Cd, Mn and Zn) and antibiotics (chloramphenicol, spectinomycin, streptomycin and tetracycline). The phenotypic clusters observed by the cluster analysis clearly showed adaptations of the S. meliloti and S. medicae strains to the multiple stresses. Genotyping with rep-PCR revealed higher genetic diversity within these phenotypic clusters and classified all the 157 isolates into 148 genotypes. No relationship between genotypic profiles and the phenotypes was observed. The Analysis of Molecular Variance revealed that largest proportion of significant (P < 0.01) genetic variation was distributed within regions (89%) than among regions (11%).

Conclusion: High degree of phenotypic and genotypic diversity is present in S. meliloti and S. medicae populations from marginal soils affected by salt and drought, in arid and semi-arid regions of Morocco. Some of the tolerant strains have a potential for exploitation in salt and drought affected areas for biological nitrogen fixation in alfalfa.

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Dendrogram showing genetic relationships among the isolates of S. meliloti and S. medicae. The UPGMA method was used for cluster analysis. G-1 to G-13: genotypic clusters. The isolates from the same phenotypic clusters (clusters P-1 to P-11, Figure 3) are denoted by the same colour, as shown in Figure 3. The numbers indicate S. meliloti isolate # and the numbers with asterisk (*) indicate S. medicae isolate #.
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Figure 4: Dendrogram showing genetic relationships among the isolates of S. meliloti and S. medicae. The UPGMA method was used for cluster analysis. G-1 to G-13: genotypic clusters. The isolates from the same phenotypic clusters (clusters P-1 to P-11, Figure 3) are denoted by the same colour, as shown in Figure 3. The numbers indicate S. meliloti isolate # and the numbers with asterisk (*) indicate S. medicae isolate #.

Mentions: The dendrogram was constructed based on the genotype profiles and provided more information on the specific variability of the strains (Figure 4). At 84% level, there were 13 definitely separated and delimited clusters of strains. Each cluster contained strains with a range of phenotypic diversity. Each cluster was formed by strains from different areas of collection and with different phenotypic traits, except the cluster G-4 (all the 4 strains of the cluster with the same phenotype). In other words, within the same location/region of collection, the strains architecture was phenotypically and genetically divergent. Many strains belonging to various physiological groups (phenotypic clusters) were also distributed in various different (genotypic) clusters of the rep-PCR analysis, indicating they were genetically divergent isolates and there was no relationship between genetic profiles and phenotypes.


Phenotypic and genetic diversity in Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae from drought and salt affected regions of Morocco.

Elboutahiri N, Thami-Alami I, Udupa SM - BMC Microbiol. (2010)

Dendrogram showing genetic relationships among the isolates of S. meliloti and S. medicae. The UPGMA method was used for cluster analysis. G-1 to G-13: genotypic clusters. The isolates from the same phenotypic clusters (clusters P-1 to P-11, Figure 3) are denoted by the same colour, as shown in Figure 3. The numbers indicate S. meliloti isolate # and the numbers with asterisk (*) indicate S. medicae isolate #.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2823721&req=5

Figure 4: Dendrogram showing genetic relationships among the isolates of S. meliloti and S. medicae. The UPGMA method was used for cluster analysis. G-1 to G-13: genotypic clusters. The isolates from the same phenotypic clusters (clusters P-1 to P-11, Figure 3) are denoted by the same colour, as shown in Figure 3. The numbers indicate S. meliloti isolate # and the numbers with asterisk (*) indicate S. medicae isolate #.
Mentions: The dendrogram was constructed based on the genotype profiles and provided more information on the specific variability of the strains (Figure 4). At 84% level, there were 13 definitely separated and delimited clusters of strains. Each cluster contained strains with a range of phenotypic diversity. Each cluster was formed by strains from different areas of collection and with different phenotypic traits, except the cluster G-4 (all the 4 strains of the cluster with the same phenotype). In other words, within the same location/region of collection, the strains architecture was phenotypically and genetically divergent. Many strains belonging to various physiological groups (phenotypic clusters) were also distributed in various different (genotypic) clusters of the rep-PCR analysis, indicating they were genetically divergent isolates and there was no relationship between genetic profiles and phenotypes.

Bottom Line: The Analysis of Molecular Variance revealed that largest proportion of significant (P < 0.01) genetic variation was distributed within regions (89%) than among regions (11%).High degree of phenotypic and genotypic diversity is present in S. meliloti and S. medicae populations from marginal soils affected by salt and drought, in arid and semi-arid regions of Morocco.Some of the tolerant strains have a potential for exploitation in salt and drought affected areas for biological nitrogen fixation in alfalfa.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Centre RĂ©gional de la Recherche Agronomique de Rabat, B,P, 415, Rabat, Morocco.

ABSTRACT

Background: Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae are symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria in root nodules of forage legume alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). In Morocco, alfalfa is usually grown in marginal soils of arid and semi-arid regions frequently affected by drought, extremes of temperature and soil pH, soil salinity and heavy metals, which affect biological nitrogen fixing ability of rhizobia and productivity of the host. This study examines phenotypic diversity for tolerance to the above stresses and genotypic diversity at Repetitive Extragenic Pallindromic DNA regions of Sinorhizobium nodulating alfalfa, sampled from marginal soils of arid and semi-arid regions of Morocco.

Results: RsaI digestion of PCR amplified 16S rDNA of the 157 sampled isolates, assigned 136 isolates as S. meliloti and the rest as S. medicae. Further phenotyping of these alfalfa rhizobia for tolerance to the environmental stresses revealed a large degree of variation: 55.41%, 82.16%, 57.96% and 3.18% of the total isolates were tolerant to NaCl (>513 mM), water stress (-1.5 MPa), high temperature (40 degrees C) and low pH (3.5), respectively. Sixty-seven isolates of S. meliloti and thirteen isolates of S. medicae that were tolerant to salinity were also tolerant to water stress. Most of the isolates of the two species showed tolerance to heavy metals (Cd, Mn and Zn) and antibiotics (chloramphenicol, spectinomycin, streptomycin and tetracycline). The phenotypic clusters observed by the cluster analysis clearly showed adaptations of the S. meliloti and S. medicae strains to the multiple stresses. Genotyping with rep-PCR revealed higher genetic diversity within these phenotypic clusters and classified all the 157 isolates into 148 genotypes. No relationship between genotypic profiles and the phenotypes was observed. The Analysis of Molecular Variance revealed that largest proportion of significant (P < 0.01) genetic variation was distributed within regions (89%) than among regions (11%).

Conclusion: High degree of phenotypic and genotypic diversity is present in S. meliloti and S. medicae populations from marginal soils affected by salt and drought, in arid and semi-arid regions of Morocco. Some of the tolerant strains have a potential for exploitation in salt and drought affected areas for biological nitrogen fixation in alfalfa.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus