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Role of lifestyle in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review.

Kant S, Gupta B - Lung India (2008)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Professor Dept. of Pulmonary Medicine, Chhtrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University (Erstwhile King George Medical University, Lucknow.

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While the penetration and influence of modern communications, technology and economic systems related to what is termed as “globalization” have been a dominant theme since the late twentieth century, there seems to have a confluence of changes in these factors that have led to a major global concern about the rapid globalization of the world economy and its impact on various sub populations... As a result, the urban elites in the developing world are experiencing higher rate of non-communicable diseases, that demand medical therapy of the kind, found in affluent societies i.e. high technology & hospital based medical care, thus escalating the cost of health care... In 1997, Murray and Lopez has published the results of Global Burden of Disease Study and found that in the last two or three decades, there has been profound shift in the major cause of mortality worldwide with non communicable chronic diseases such as cancer, Cardio Vascular Disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and diabetes mellitus accounting for more than two-third of the deaths... Cigarette smoking is by far the commonest cause of COPD but there are other modifiable risk factors including air pollution (particularly indoor air pollution from burning fuels) and occupational exposures... Women born in United States have the highest level of smoking (32%) compared to South European (20%) and Asian born women (21%) Growing participation of women in active professional life has increased the number of smokers... Cigarette smokers, have higher prevalence of lung function abnormalities and respiratory symptoms, a greater annual rate of decline in FEV1 and higher death rate from COPD as compared to non smokers... Passive smoking to cigarette smoke may also contribute to respiratory symptoms and COPD by increasing the lungs total burden of inhaled particulars and gases–... Low body weight or recent weight loss and in particular depleted lean body mass in patients with COPD have been shown to be independent predictors of mortality, poor outcomes after acute excaberations, hospital admission rates, and need for mechanical ventilation... The factors thought to contribute to nutrition depletion in these patients include elevated resting and activity-related energy expenditure, reduced dietary intake relative to energy expenditure, accelerated negative nitrogen balance, particularly during acute exacerbations of COPD, medication effects, and perhaps most importantly an elevated systemic inflammatory response... Patterns are least detrimental in Western Europe (EURA) and the more economically established parts of the Western Pacific region (World Health Report 2002) Reports on the association between alcohol consumption and the prevalence of COPD vary... An association between the prevalence of chronic bronchitis and a low socioeconomic status, even after adjusting for smoking and other risk factors was detected in Brazil in 1994... In Norway, Bakke et al. found adjusted odds ratios of spirometric airflow limitation of 5.2 and 1.8 for subjects who had completed only primary and secondary education, respectively, compared to university graduates... There are number of elements in this “package” including increased consumption of tobacco smoking amongst females and children, changing dietary pattern and increasing burden of industries and population leading to increased air pollution... All of these are associated with the increased risk of the disease, but none of which alone cannot explain the increase in prevalence.

No MeSH data available.


Global Burden of Disease attributable to 20 leading selected risk factorsSource: World Health Report 2002
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
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Figure 0001: Global Burden of Disease attributable to 20 leading selected risk factorsSource: World Health Report 2002

Mentions: In 1997, Murray and Lopez has published the results of Global Burden of Disease Study1 and found that in the last two or three decades, there has been profound shift in the major cause of mortality worldwide with non communicable chronic diseases such as cancer, Cardio Vascular Disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and diabetes mellitus accounting for more than two-third of the deaths. The leading causes of death and disability and the risk factors that cause them their global ranking, and their distribution by broad region, is shown in Figure I Further, in both developing and developed countries alcohol, tobacoo, and dietary factors were found to be the main causes of disease burden. Table I summarizes the contribution of selected risk factors for the leading diseases causing deaths. The increasing prevalence of COPD, thus is, not an exception to be associated with the development of “Western lifestyle”. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema2–5, is a progressive disease characterized by airflow limitation/obstruction that is either not reversible at all or only partially reversible. The airflow obstruction in COPD is associated with abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to chronic inhalational exposure from smokes, dusts and gases. COPD includes chronic obstructive bronchiolitis with fibrosis and obstruction of small airways and emphysema with enlargement of air spaces and destruction of lung parenchyma, loss of lung elasticity and closure of small airways.. Most patients with COPD have all the three pathological mechanisms (chronic obstructive bronchiolitis, emphysema and mucus plugging) as all are induced by smoking but may differ in proportion of emphysema and obstructive bronchiolitis6.


Role of lifestyle in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review.

Kant S, Gupta B - Lung India (2008)

Global Burden of Disease attributable to 20 leading selected risk factorsSource: World Health Report 2002
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2822328&req=5

Figure 0001: Global Burden of Disease attributable to 20 leading selected risk factorsSource: World Health Report 2002
Mentions: In 1997, Murray and Lopez has published the results of Global Burden of Disease Study1 and found that in the last two or three decades, there has been profound shift in the major cause of mortality worldwide with non communicable chronic diseases such as cancer, Cardio Vascular Disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and diabetes mellitus accounting for more than two-third of the deaths. The leading causes of death and disability and the risk factors that cause them their global ranking, and their distribution by broad region, is shown in Figure I Further, in both developing and developed countries alcohol, tobacoo, and dietary factors were found to be the main causes of disease burden. Table I summarizes the contribution of selected risk factors for the leading diseases causing deaths. The increasing prevalence of COPD, thus is, not an exception to be associated with the development of “Western lifestyle”. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema2–5, is a progressive disease characterized by airflow limitation/obstruction that is either not reversible at all or only partially reversible. The airflow obstruction in COPD is associated with abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to chronic inhalational exposure from smokes, dusts and gases. COPD includes chronic obstructive bronchiolitis with fibrosis and obstruction of small airways and emphysema with enlargement of air spaces and destruction of lung parenchyma, loss of lung elasticity and closure of small airways.. Most patients with COPD have all the three pathological mechanisms (chronic obstructive bronchiolitis, emphysema and mucus plugging) as all are induced by smoking but may differ in proportion of emphysema and obstructive bronchiolitis6.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Professor Dept. of Pulmonary Medicine, Chhtrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University (Erstwhile King George Medical University, Lucknow.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

While the penetration and influence of modern communications, technology and economic systems related to what is termed as “globalization” have been a dominant theme since the late twentieth century, there seems to have a confluence of changes in these factors that have led to a major global concern about the rapid globalization of the world economy and its impact on various sub populations... As a result, the urban elites in the developing world are experiencing higher rate of non-communicable diseases, that demand medical therapy of the kind, found in affluent societies i.e. high technology & hospital based medical care, thus escalating the cost of health care... In 1997, Murray and Lopez has published the results of Global Burden of Disease Study and found that in the last two or three decades, there has been profound shift in the major cause of mortality worldwide with non communicable chronic diseases such as cancer, Cardio Vascular Disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and diabetes mellitus accounting for more than two-third of the deaths... Cigarette smoking is by far the commonest cause of COPD but there are other modifiable risk factors including air pollution (particularly indoor air pollution from burning fuels) and occupational exposures... Women born in United States have the highest level of smoking (32%) compared to South European (20%) and Asian born women (21%) Growing participation of women in active professional life has increased the number of smokers... Cigarette smokers, have higher prevalence of lung function abnormalities and respiratory symptoms, a greater annual rate of decline in FEV1 and higher death rate from COPD as compared to non smokers... Passive smoking to cigarette smoke may also contribute to respiratory symptoms and COPD by increasing the lungs total burden of inhaled particulars and gases–... Low body weight or recent weight loss and in particular depleted lean body mass in patients with COPD have been shown to be independent predictors of mortality, poor outcomes after acute excaberations, hospital admission rates, and need for mechanical ventilation... The factors thought to contribute to nutrition depletion in these patients include elevated resting and activity-related energy expenditure, reduced dietary intake relative to energy expenditure, accelerated negative nitrogen balance, particularly during acute exacerbations of COPD, medication effects, and perhaps most importantly an elevated systemic inflammatory response... Patterns are least detrimental in Western Europe (EURA) and the more economically established parts of the Western Pacific region (World Health Report 2002) Reports on the association between alcohol consumption and the prevalence of COPD vary... An association between the prevalence of chronic bronchitis and a low socioeconomic status, even after adjusting for smoking and other risk factors was detected in Brazil in 1994... In Norway, Bakke et al. found adjusted odds ratios of spirometric airflow limitation of 5.2 and 1.8 for subjects who had completed only primary and secondary education, respectively, compared to university graduates... There are number of elements in this “package” including increased consumption of tobacco smoking amongst females and children, changing dietary pattern and increasing burden of industries and population leading to increased air pollution... All of these are associated with the increased risk of the disease, but none of which alone cannot explain the increase in prevalence.

No MeSH data available.