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Association between residential proximity to PERC dry cleaning establishments and kidney cancer in New York City.

Ma J, Lessner L, Schreiber J, Carpenter DO - J Environ Public Health (2010)

Bottom Line: Perchloroethylene (PERC) is commonly used as a dry cleaning solvent and is believed to be a human carcinogen, with occupational exposure resulting in elevated rates of kidney cancer.We found a significant association between the density of PERC dry cleaning establishments and the rate of hospital discharges that include a diagnosis of kidney cancer among persons 45 years of age and older living in New York City.The rate ratio increased by 10 to 27% for the populations in zip codes with higher density of PERC dry cleaners.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University at Albany School of Public Health, Rensselaer, NY 12144, USA.

ABSTRACT
Perchloroethylene (PERC) is commonly used as a dry cleaning solvent and is believed to be a human carcinogen, with occupational exposure resulting in elevated rates of kidney cancer. Living near a dry cleaning facility using PERC has been demonstrated to increase the risk of PERC exposure throughout the building where the dry cleaning is conducted, and in nearby buildings. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that living in an area where there are many PERC dry cleaners increases PERC exposure and the risk of kidney cancer. We matched the diagnosis of kidney cancer from hospitalization discharge data in New York City for the years 1994-2004 by zip code of patient residence to the zip code density of dry cleaners using PERC, as a surrogate for residential exposure. We controlled for age, race, gender, and median household income. We found a significant association between the density of PERC dry cleaning establishments and the rate of hospital discharges that include a diagnosis of kidney cancer among persons 45 years of age and older living in New York City. The rate ratio increased by 10 to 27% for the populations in zip codes with higher density of PERC dry cleaners. Because our exposure assessment is inexact, we are likely underestimating the real association between exposure to PERC and rates of kidney cancer. Our results support the hypothesis that living near a dry cleaning facility using PERC increases the risk of PERC exposure and of developing kidney cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate an association between residential PERC exposure and cancer risk.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Map of dry cleaner density in New York City by zip code. Blue refers to excluded zip code.
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fig1: Map of dry cleaner density in New York City by zip code. Blue refers to excluded zip code.

Mentions: We designed this study to test the hypothesis that living in an area where there are many PERC dry cleaners increases PERC exposure and the risk of kidney cancer. We used data available from the New York State Department of Health to assess by zip code the number of people hospitalized for treatment of kidney cancer (see Figure 1). We used the “density of dry cleaners that use PERC” by zip code in New York City as a surrogate for PERC exposure. We recognize that other solvents are also used in some of these dry cleaners, but the data from the registry documents that they use PERC, which was the criterion for inclusion.


Association between residential proximity to PERC dry cleaning establishments and kidney cancer in New York City.

Ma J, Lessner L, Schreiber J, Carpenter DO - J Environ Public Health (2010)

Map of dry cleaner density in New York City by zip code. Blue refers to excluded zip code.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2821751&req=5

fig1: Map of dry cleaner density in New York City by zip code. Blue refers to excluded zip code.
Mentions: We designed this study to test the hypothesis that living in an area where there are many PERC dry cleaners increases PERC exposure and the risk of kidney cancer. We used data available from the New York State Department of Health to assess by zip code the number of people hospitalized for treatment of kidney cancer (see Figure 1). We used the “density of dry cleaners that use PERC” by zip code in New York City as a surrogate for PERC exposure. We recognize that other solvents are also used in some of these dry cleaners, but the data from the registry documents that they use PERC, which was the criterion for inclusion.

Bottom Line: Perchloroethylene (PERC) is commonly used as a dry cleaning solvent and is believed to be a human carcinogen, with occupational exposure resulting in elevated rates of kidney cancer.We found a significant association between the density of PERC dry cleaning establishments and the rate of hospital discharges that include a diagnosis of kidney cancer among persons 45 years of age and older living in New York City.The rate ratio increased by 10 to 27% for the populations in zip codes with higher density of PERC dry cleaners.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University at Albany School of Public Health, Rensselaer, NY 12144, USA.

ABSTRACT
Perchloroethylene (PERC) is commonly used as a dry cleaning solvent and is believed to be a human carcinogen, with occupational exposure resulting in elevated rates of kidney cancer. Living near a dry cleaning facility using PERC has been demonstrated to increase the risk of PERC exposure throughout the building where the dry cleaning is conducted, and in nearby buildings. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that living in an area where there are many PERC dry cleaners increases PERC exposure and the risk of kidney cancer. We matched the diagnosis of kidney cancer from hospitalization discharge data in New York City for the years 1994-2004 by zip code of patient residence to the zip code density of dry cleaners using PERC, as a surrogate for residential exposure. We controlled for age, race, gender, and median household income. We found a significant association between the density of PERC dry cleaning establishments and the rate of hospital discharges that include a diagnosis of kidney cancer among persons 45 years of age and older living in New York City. The rate ratio increased by 10 to 27% for the populations in zip codes with higher density of PERC dry cleaners. Because our exposure assessment is inexact, we are likely underestimating the real association between exposure to PERC and rates of kidney cancer. Our results support the hypothesis that living near a dry cleaning facility using PERC increases the risk of PERC exposure and of developing kidney cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate an association between residential PERC exposure and cancer risk.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus