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Nitric oxide and respiratory helminthic diseases.

Muro A, Pérez-Arellano JL - J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (2010)

Bottom Line: Nitric oxide (NO) is a very simple molecule that displays very important functions both in helminths (mainly those involved in respiratory pathology) and in mammalian hosts.Next, we summarized the effect of antigens obtained from different phases of the biological cycle on NO production by host mammalian cells (mainly from human sources).Thirdly, we revised the evaluation of NO on the biological activities and/or the viability of respiratory helminths.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Inmunología Parasitaria y Molecular, Centro de Investigación de Enfermedades Tropicales de la Universidad de Salamanca, Campus Miguel de Unamuno s/n, 37007 Salamanca, Spain. ama@usal.es

ABSTRACT
Nitric oxide (NO) is a very simple molecule that displays very important functions both in helminths (mainly those involved in respiratory pathology) and in mammalian hosts. In this paper we review four issues related to interaction of NO and lung helminthic diseases. Firstly, we evaluated data available on the NO synthesis and release by helminths and their biological role. Next, we summarized the effect of antigens obtained from different phases of the biological cycle on NO production by host mammalian cells (mainly from human sources). Thirdly, we revised the evaluation of NO on the biological activities and/or the viability of respiratory helminths. Lastly, the deleterious consequences of increased production of NO during helminthic human infection are detailed.

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Effect of NO production by alveolar macrophages stimulated with different helminth antigens. Nonstimulated (ϕ), LPS-stimulated macrophages (LPS), cyst wall (CW), total extract (TE), hydatid fluid (HF), soluble laminated-layer (LL), E14t recombinant 14-3-3 protein (E14t), excretory-secretory adult (ESA), and somatic adult (SA), excretory-secretory larvae (ESL3), somatic larvae (SL3). Helminths are represented in different colours.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig1: Effect of NO production by alveolar macrophages stimulated with different helminth antigens. Nonstimulated (ϕ), LPS-stimulated macrophages (LPS), cyst wall (CW), total extract (TE), hydatid fluid (HF), soluble laminated-layer (LL), E14t recombinant 14-3-3 protein (E14t), excretory-secretory adult (ESA), and somatic adult (SA), excretory-secretory larvae (ESL3), somatic larvae (SL3). Helminths are represented in different colours.

Mentions: Thirdly, the stimulation of NO production induced by parasite antigens has been evaluated by cell cultures. The results obtained by our research group demonstrated three well-differentiated aspects, according to the helminth species, the type of antigen from the same parasite, and the kind of inflammatory cell utilized in the experiment (Figure 1). Firstly, there are opposed effects on the NO production according to the groups of helminths studied. We compared the effect of Echinococcus granulosus- and Echinococcus multilocularis-defined metacestode structural and metabolic antigens on the NO production by rat alveolar macrophages. Our results showed that none of these antigens could stimulate macrophage NO production. Moreover, some Echinococcus antigens inhibit in vitro NO production when cells were previously exposed to lipopolisacharide (LPS) stimulation. This inhibitory effect was also seen when Echinococcus multilocularis laminated-layer or cysts wall soluble components from both species were used in the experiment [27]. On the other hand, different effects were observed when macrophages were incubated with antigens from Paragonimus mexicanus and Schistosoma bovis. We have observed that excretory-secretory products from Paragonimus mexicanus adult worms trigger NO production from alveolar macrophages in vitro in a specific and concentration-dependent manner [28]. Our results also demonstrated that the stimulation of NO production by alveolar macrophages was accompanied by an increase in iNOS mRNA detection. In this study, we demonstrated that specific excretory-secretory antigens from Schistosoma bovis adult worms did not induce in vitro NO release from alveolar macrophages. This could be explained because some of these parasites specifically localize in the lungs (e.g., Paragonimus sp.), whereas others migrate through the lungs and definitively settle in other organs (e.g., Schistosoma sp.).


Nitric oxide and respiratory helminthic diseases.

Muro A, Pérez-Arellano JL - J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (2010)

Effect of NO production by alveolar macrophages stimulated with different helminth antigens. Nonstimulated (ϕ), LPS-stimulated macrophages (LPS), cyst wall (CW), total extract (TE), hydatid fluid (HF), soluble laminated-layer (LL), E14t recombinant 14-3-3 protein (E14t), excretory-secretory adult (ESA), and somatic adult (SA), excretory-secretory larvae (ESL3), somatic larvae (SL3). Helminths are represented in different colours.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2821625&req=5

fig1: Effect of NO production by alveolar macrophages stimulated with different helminth antigens. Nonstimulated (ϕ), LPS-stimulated macrophages (LPS), cyst wall (CW), total extract (TE), hydatid fluid (HF), soluble laminated-layer (LL), E14t recombinant 14-3-3 protein (E14t), excretory-secretory adult (ESA), and somatic adult (SA), excretory-secretory larvae (ESL3), somatic larvae (SL3). Helminths are represented in different colours.
Mentions: Thirdly, the stimulation of NO production induced by parasite antigens has been evaluated by cell cultures. The results obtained by our research group demonstrated three well-differentiated aspects, according to the helminth species, the type of antigen from the same parasite, and the kind of inflammatory cell utilized in the experiment (Figure 1). Firstly, there are opposed effects on the NO production according to the groups of helminths studied. We compared the effect of Echinococcus granulosus- and Echinococcus multilocularis-defined metacestode structural and metabolic antigens on the NO production by rat alveolar macrophages. Our results showed that none of these antigens could stimulate macrophage NO production. Moreover, some Echinococcus antigens inhibit in vitro NO production when cells were previously exposed to lipopolisacharide (LPS) stimulation. This inhibitory effect was also seen when Echinococcus multilocularis laminated-layer or cysts wall soluble components from both species were used in the experiment [27]. On the other hand, different effects were observed when macrophages were incubated with antigens from Paragonimus mexicanus and Schistosoma bovis. We have observed that excretory-secretory products from Paragonimus mexicanus adult worms trigger NO production from alveolar macrophages in vitro in a specific and concentration-dependent manner [28]. Our results also demonstrated that the stimulation of NO production by alveolar macrophages was accompanied by an increase in iNOS mRNA detection. In this study, we demonstrated that specific excretory-secretory antigens from Schistosoma bovis adult worms did not induce in vitro NO release from alveolar macrophages. This could be explained because some of these parasites specifically localize in the lungs (e.g., Paragonimus sp.), whereas others migrate through the lungs and definitively settle in other organs (e.g., Schistosoma sp.).

Bottom Line: Nitric oxide (NO) is a very simple molecule that displays very important functions both in helminths (mainly those involved in respiratory pathology) and in mammalian hosts.Next, we summarized the effect of antigens obtained from different phases of the biological cycle on NO production by host mammalian cells (mainly from human sources).Thirdly, we revised the evaluation of NO on the biological activities and/or the viability of respiratory helminths.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Inmunología Parasitaria y Molecular, Centro de Investigación de Enfermedades Tropicales de la Universidad de Salamanca, Campus Miguel de Unamuno s/n, 37007 Salamanca, Spain. ama@usal.es

ABSTRACT
Nitric oxide (NO) is a very simple molecule that displays very important functions both in helminths (mainly those involved in respiratory pathology) and in mammalian hosts. In this paper we review four issues related to interaction of NO and lung helminthic diseases. Firstly, we evaluated data available on the NO synthesis and release by helminths and their biological role. Next, we summarized the effect of antigens obtained from different phases of the biological cycle on NO production by host mammalian cells (mainly from human sources). Thirdly, we revised the evaluation of NO on the biological activities and/or the viability of respiratory helminths. Lastly, the deleterious consequences of increased production of NO during helminthic human infection are detailed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus