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Endothelin-1 as a neuropeptide: neurotransmitter or neurovascular effects?

Dashwood MR, Loesch A - J Cell Commun Signal (2009)

Bottom Line: A neuropeptide role for ET-1 is supported by studies showing a variety of effects caused following its administration into different regions of the brain and by application to peripheral nerves.While the effect of ET-1 on nerve tissue is beyond doubt, its action on nerve blood flow is often ignored.Studies range from those showing the distribution of ET-1 and its receptors in nerve tissue to those describing numerous neurally-mediated effects of ET-1.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is an endothelium-derived peptide that also possesses potent mitogenic activity. There is also a suggestion the ET-1 is a neuropeptide, based mainly on its histological identification in both the central and peripheral nervous system in a number of species, including man. A neuropeptide role for ET-1 is supported by studies showing a variety of effects caused following its administration into different regions of the brain and by application to peripheral nerves. In addition there are studies proposing that ET-1 is implicated in a number of neural circuits where its transmitter affects range from a role in pain and temperature control to its action on the hypothalamo-neurosecretory system. While the effect of ET-1 on nerve tissue is beyond doubt, its action on nerve blood flow is often ignored. Here, we review data generated in a number of species and using a variety of experimental models. Studies range from those showing the distribution of ET-1 and its receptors in nerve tissue to those describing numerous neurally-mediated effects of ET-1.

No MeSH data available.


ET-1 action on the periaqueductal gray area of the rat. Top panel. ETA receptors ([125I-PD 151252 binding) in the rat brain identified by in vitro autoradiography (from D’Amico et al. 1996). Periaqueductal gray area (PAG) is outlined. Lower panel. Cerebral vessels of the PAG identified by immunohistochemistry (arrows indicate CD31 staining of vessel endothelium, red). (Dashwood unpublished) *indicates the aqueduct. Scale bars = 2.5 mm for the top and 50 µm for the lower panels
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Fig3: ET-1 action on the periaqueductal gray area of the rat. Top panel. ETA receptors ([125I-PD 151252 binding) in the rat brain identified by in vitro autoradiography (from D’Amico et al. 1996). Periaqueductal gray area (PAG) is outlined. Lower panel. Cerebral vessels of the PAG identified by immunohistochemistry (arrows indicate CD31 staining of vessel endothelium, red). (Dashwood unpublished) *indicates the aqueduct. Scale bars = 2.5 mm for the top and 50 µm for the lower panels

Mentions: Further evidence for a predominant involvement of the ETA receptor in the central cardiovascular effect of ET-1 was suggested where central administration of ET-1 was performed after stereotaxic placement of a needle tip into the periaqueductal gray area (D’Amico et al. 1996). These injections elicited a dose-dependent increase in mean arterial pressure but a fall in renal blood flow. Pretreatment with ETA-selective antagonists reduced these effects but ETB receptor blockade was ineffective. The potential role of ETA receptors was supported by in vitro autoradiographic studies that showed dense [125I]-PD 151242 binding to many brain regions of the rat brain (including the periaqueductal gray area) and a paucity of ETB-receptor binding sites (D’Amico et al. 1996). Again, the existence of the dense microvascular network in many brain regions, including the PAG, requires a potential vascular involvement of central ET-1 application to be considered (See Fig. 3).Fig. 3


Endothelin-1 as a neuropeptide: neurotransmitter or neurovascular effects?

Dashwood MR, Loesch A - J Cell Commun Signal (2009)

ET-1 action on the periaqueductal gray area of the rat. Top panel. ETA receptors ([125I-PD 151252 binding) in the rat brain identified by in vitro autoradiography (from D’Amico et al. 1996). Periaqueductal gray area (PAG) is outlined. Lower panel. Cerebral vessels of the PAG identified by immunohistochemistry (arrows indicate CD31 staining of vessel endothelium, red). (Dashwood unpublished) *indicates the aqueduct. Scale bars = 2.5 mm for the top and 50 µm for the lower panels
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
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Fig3: ET-1 action on the periaqueductal gray area of the rat. Top panel. ETA receptors ([125I-PD 151252 binding) in the rat brain identified by in vitro autoradiography (from D’Amico et al. 1996). Periaqueductal gray area (PAG) is outlined. Lower panel. Cerebral vessels of the PAG identified by immunohistochemistry (arrows indicate CD31 staining of vessel endothelium, red). (Dashwood unpublished) *indicates the aqueduct. Scale bars = 2.5 mm for the top and 50 µm for the lower panels
Mentions: Further evidence for a predominant involvement of the ETA receptor in the central cardiovascular effect of ET-1 was suggested where central administration of ET-1 was performed after stereotaxic placement of a needle tip into the periaqueductal gray area (D’Amico et al. 1996). These injections elicited a dose-dependent increase in mean arterial pressure but a fall in renal blood flow. Pretreatment with ETA-selective antagonists reduced these effects but ETB receptor blockade was ineffective. The potential role of ETA receptors was supported by in vitro autoradiographic studies that showed dense [125I]-PD 151242 binding to many brain regions of the rat brain (including the periaqueductal gray area) and a paucity of ETB-receptor binding sites (D’Amico et al. 1996). Again, the existence of the dense microvascular network in many brain regions, including the PAG, requires a potential vascular involvement of central ET-1 application to be considered (See Fig. 3).Fig. 3

Bottom Line: A neuropeptide role for ET-1 is supported by studies showing a variety of effects caused following its administration into different regions of the brain and by application to peripheral nerves.While the effect of ET-1 on nerve tissue is beyond doubt, its action on nerve blood flow is often ignored.Studies range from those showing the distribution of ET-1 and its receptors in nerve tissue to those describing numerous neurally-mediated effects of ET-1.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is an endothelium-derived peptide that also possesses potent mitogenic activity. There is also a suggestion the ET-1 is a neuropeptide, based mainly on its histological identification in both the central and peripheral nervous system in a number of species, including man. A neuropeptide role for ET-1 is supported by studies showing a variety of effects caused following its administration into different regions of the brain and by application to peripheral nerves. In addition there are studies proposing that ET-1 is implicated in a number of neural circuits where its transmitter affects range from a role in pain and temperature control to its action on the hypothalamo-neurosecretory system. While the effect of ET-1 on nerve tissue is beyond doubt, its action on nerve blood flow is often ignored. Here, we review data generated in a number of species and using a variety of experimental models. Studies range from those showing the distribution of ET-1 and its receptors in nerve tissue to those describing numerous neurally-mediated effects of ET-1.

No MeSH data available.