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Endothelin-1 as a neuropeptide: neurotransmitter or neurovascular effects?

Dashwood MR, Loesch A - J Cell Commun Signal (2009)

Bottom Line: A neuropeptide role for ET-1 is supported by studies showing a variety of effects caused following its administration into different regions of the brain and by application to peripheral nerves.While the effect of ET-1 on nerve tissue is beyond doubt, its action on nerve blood flow is often ignored.Studies range from those showing the distribution of ET-1 and its receptors in nerve tissue to those describing numerous neurally-mediated effects of ET-1.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is an endothelium-derived peptide that also possesses potent mitogenic activity. There is also a suggestion the ET-1 is a neuropeptide, based mainly on its histological identification in both the central and peripheral nervous system in a number of species, including man. A neuropeptide role for ET-1 is supported by studies showing a variety of effects caused following its administration into different regions of the brain and by application to peripheral nerves. In addition there are studies proposing that ET-1 is implicated in a number of neural circuits where its transmitter affects range from a role in pain and temperature control to its action on the hypothalamo-neurosecretory system. While the effect of ET-1 on nerve tissue is beyond doubt, its action on nerve blood flow is often ignored. Here, we review data generated in a number of species and using a variety of experimental models. Studies range from those showing the distribution of ET-1 and its receptors in nerve tissue to those describing numerous neurally-mediated effects of ET-1.

No MeSH data available.


Cerebral vessels. Left panel. Magnification angiography of normal rat brain using barium sulphate contrast medium. There is an abundant vascular supply with many penetrating microvessels in the cortex shown in the right panel following intra-arterial injection of India ink (black regions of a haemotoxylin and eosin stains section). Scale bar = 5 mm for the left panel and 50 µm for the right panel. Modified from Hekmatpanah Surg Neurol 2007;67:564-71
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Fig2: Cerebral vessels. Left panel. Magnification angiography of normal rat brain using barium sulphate contrast medium. There is an abundant vascular supply with many penetrating microvessels in the cortex shown in the right panel following intra-arterial injection of India ink (black regions of a haemotoxylin and eosin stains section). Scale bar = 5 mm for the left panel and 50 µm for the right panel. Modified from Hekmatpanah Surg Neurol 2007;67:564-71

Mentions: The potential for ICV administered compounds to affect the cerebral circulation is evident from recent angiographic data produced in rats exhibiting drowsiness and coma caused by brain tumor (Hekmatpanah 2007). Here, a dense vascular network in normal rats was revealed using barium sulphate contrast medium (see Fig. 2). In control animals, magnified angiograms revealed perforating microvessels that penetrate the brain and, while their diameter is too small to be detected by routine cerebral angiography, India ink injections revealed small/terminal capillaries throughout the brain (Fig. 2). Interestingly, the author (Hekmatpanah 2007) describes infarcted and ischaemic changes to microvessels of rats with brain tumours similar to those that might be expected following administration of vasoconstrictors such as ET-1.Fig. 2


Endothelin-1 as a neuropeptide: neurotransmitter or neurovascular effects?

Dashwood MR, Loesch A - J Cell Commun Signal (2009)

Cerebral vessels. Left panel. Magnification angiography of normal rat brain using barium sulphate contrast medium. There is an abundant vascular supply with many penetrating microvessels in the cortex shown in the right panel following intra-arterial injection of India ink (black regions of a haemotoxylin and eosin stains section). Scale bar = 5 mm for the left panel and 50 µm for the right panel. Modified from Hekmatpanah Surg Neurol 2007;67:564-71
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2821480&req=5

Fig2: Cerebral vessels. Left panel. Magnification angiography of normal rat brain using barium sulphate contrast medium. There is an abundant vascular supply with many penetrating microvessels in the cortex shown in the right panel following intra-arterial injection of India ink (black regions of a haemotoxylin and eosin stains section). Scale bar = 5 mm for the left panel and 50 µm for the right panel. Modified from Hekmatpanah Surg Neurol 2007;67:564-71
Mentions: The potential for ICV administered compounds to affect the cerebral circulation is evident from recent angiographic data produced in rats exhibiting drowsiness and coma caused by brain tumor (Hekmatpanah 2007). Here, a dense vascular network in normal rats was revealed using barium sulphate contrast medium (see Fig. 2). In control animals, magnified angiograms revealed perforating microvessels that penetrate the brain and, while their diameter is too small to be detected by routine cerebral angiography, India ink injections revealed small/terminal capillaries throughout the brain (Fig. 2). Interestingly, the author (Hekmatpanah 2007) describes infarcted and ischaemic changes to microvessels of rats with brain tumours similar to those that might be expected following administration of vasoconstrictors such as ET-1.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: A neuropeptide role for ET-1 is supported by studies showing a variety of effects caused following its administration into different regions of the brain and by application to peripheral nerves.While the effect of ET-1 on nerve tissue is beyond doubt, its action on nerve blood flow is often ignored.Studies range from those showing the distribution of ET-1 and its receptors in nerve tissue to those describing numerous neurally-mediated effects of ET-1.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is an endothelium-derived peptide that also possesses potent mitogenic activity. There is also a suggestion the ET-1 is a neuropeptide, based mainly on its histological identification in both the central and peripheral nervous system in a number of species, including man. A neuropeptide role for ET-1 is supported by studies showing a variety of effects caused following its administration into different regions of the brain and by application to peripheral nerves. In addition there are studies proposing that ET-1 is implicated in a number of neural circuits where its transmitter affects range from a role in pain and temperature control to its action on the hypothalamo-neurosecretory system. While the effect of ET-1 on nerve tissue is beyond doubt, its action on nerve blood flow is often ignored. Here, we review data generated in a number of species and using a variety of experimental models. Studies range from those showing the distribution of ET-1 and its receptors in nerve tissue to those describing numerous neurally-mediated effects of ET-1.

No MeSH data available.