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Endothelin-1 as a neuropeptide: neurotransmitter or neurovascular effects?

Dashwood MR, Loesch A - J Cell Commun Signal (2009)

Bottom Line: A neuropeptide role for ET-1 is supported by studies showing a variety of effects caused following its administration into different regions of the brain and by application to peripheral nerves.While the effect of ET-1 on nerve tissue is beyond doubt, its action on nerve blood flow is often ignored.Studies range from those showing the distribution of ET-1 and its receptors in nerve tissue to those describing numerous neurally-mediated effects of ET-1.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is an endothelium-derived peptide that also possesses potent mitogenic activity. There is also a suggestion the ET-1 is a neuropeptide, based mainly on its histological identification in both the central and peripheral nervous system in a number of species, including man. A neuropeptide role for ET-1 is supported by studies showing a variety of effects caused following its administration into different regions of the brain and by application to peripheral nerves. In addition there are studies proposing that ET-1 is implicated in a number of neural circuits where its transmitter affects range from a role in pain and temperature control to its action on the hypothalamo-neurosecretory system. While the effect of ET-1 on nerve tissue is beyond doubt, its action on nerve blood flow is often ignored. Here, we review data generated in a number of species and using a variety of experimental models. Studies range from those showing the distribution of ET-1 and its receptors in nerve tissue to those describing numerous neurally-mediated effects of ET-1.

No MeSH data available.


Representative frontal sections of rat brain. Frontal sections of rat brain (Sudan black staining) at three different levels from rostral a to caudal c showing: in a the lateral ventricles (arrow), in b third ventricle (arrow) and thalamus-hypothalamus with supraoptic nucleus (asterisk), and in c showing aqueduct (arrow) and periaquedutcal gray area (asterisk). ET-1 adiministration to such regions has cardiovascular (D’Amico et al. 1996; McAuley et al. 1996; Macrae et al. 1991a, b; Macrae et al. 1993) and temperature-regulating effects (Fabricio et al. 2005)
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Fig1: Representative frontal sections of rat brain. Frontal sections of rat brain (Sudan black staining) at three different levels from rostral a to caudal c showing: in a the lateral ventricles (arrow), in b third ventricle (arrow) and thalamus-hypothalamus with supraoptic nucleus (asterisk), and in c showing aqueduct (arrow) and periaquedutcal gray area (asterisk). ET-1 adiministration to such regions has cardiovascular (D’Amico et al. 1996; McAuley et al. 1996; Macrae et al. 1991a, b; Macrae et al. 1993) and temperature-regulating effects (Fabricio et al. 2005)

Mentions: The effects of drugs acting on the CNS may be studied in animals by administration into the cerebral ventricles. This technique was introduced over 50 years ago (Feldberg and Sherwood 1954) and, using such an approach, centrally-mediated effects of many drugs have been described. For example, the potential central inhibitory effect of endogenous opioid peptides on the adrenal medulla, have been suggested based on intracerebrovascular (ICV) administration of the opiate receptor antagonist, naloxone, in the cat (Dashwood and Feldberg 1979). In particular, ICV injection in rats, mostly into the lateral ventricles, is commonly used for screening of compounds with potential central cardiovascular activity. Here, the tip of the cannula is placed into the ‘liquor spaces’, often under asceptic conditions, using stereotaxic guidance. Drugs administered by this route bypass the blood brain barrier, a structure that prevents many compounds reaching the brain when given systemically. Once injected into the cerebroventricular system compounds combine with the cerebrospinal fluid where they are able to act on many superficial brain structures. For example, the potential effects of a variety of neurotransmitters have been studied following administration into the aqueduct, lateral and third ventricles, routes that target various superficial structures ‘adjacent’ to this compartment, including the periaqueductal gray matter and the hypothalamus (See Fig. 1).Fig. 1


Endothelin-1 as a neuropeptide: neurotransmitter or neurovascular effects?

Dashwood MR, Loesch A - J Cell Commun Signal (2009)

Representative frontal sections of rat brain. Frontal sections of rat brain (Sudan black staining) at three different levels from rostral a to caudal c showing: in a the lateral ventricles (arrow), in b third ventricle (arrow) and thalamus-hypothalamus with supraoptic nucleus (asterisk), and in c showing aqueduct (arrow) and periaquedutcal gray area (asterisk). ET-1 adiministration to such regions has cardiovascular (D’Amico et al. 1996; McAuley et al. 1996; Macrae et al. 1991a, b; Macrae et al. 1993) and temperature-regulating effects (Fabricio et al. 2005)
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Fig1: Representative frontal sections of rat brain. Frontal sections of rat brain (Sudan black staining) at three different levels from rostral a to caudal c showing: in a the lateral ventricles (arrow), in b third ventricle (arrow) and thalamus-hypothalamus with supraoptic nucleus (asterisk), and in c showing aqueduct (arrow) and periaquedutcal gray area (asterisk). ET-1 adiministration to such regions has cardiovascular (D’Amico et al. 1996; McAuley et al. 1996; Macrae et al. 1991a, b; Macrae et al. 1993) and temperature-regulating effects (Fabricio et al. 2005)
Mentions: The effects of drugs acting on the CNS may be studied in animals by administration into the cerebral ventricles. This technique was introduced over 50 years ago (Feldberg and Sherwood 1954) and, using such an approach, centrally-mediated effects of many drugs have been described. For example, the potential central inhibitory effect of endogenous opioid peptides on the adrenal medulla, have been suggested based on intracerebrovascular (ICV) administration of the opiate receptor antagonist, naloxone, in the cat (Dashwood and Feldberg 1979). In particular, ICV injection in rats, mostly into the lateral ventricles, is commonly used for screening of compounds with potential central cardiovascular activity. Here, the tip of the cannula is placed into the ‘liquor spaces’, often under asceptic conditions, using stereotaxic guidance. Drugs administered by this route bypass the blood brain barrier, a structure that prevents many compounds reaching the brain when given systemically. Once injected into the cerebroventricular system compounds combine with the cerebrospinal fluid where they are able to act on many superficial brain structures. For example, the potential effects of a variety of neurotransmitters have been studied following administration into the aqueduct, lateral and third ventricles, routes that target various superficial structures ‘adjacent’ to this compartment, including the periaqueductal gray matter and the hypothalamus (See Fig. 1).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: A neuropeptide role for ET-1 is supported by studies showing a variety of effects caused following its administration into different regions of the brain and by application to peripheral nerves.While the effect of ET-1 on nerve tissue is beyond doubt, its action on nerve blood flow is often ignored.Studies range from those showing the distribution of ET-1 and its receptors in nerve tissue to those describing numerous neurally-mediated effects of ET-1.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is an endothelium-derived peptide that also possesses potent mitogenic activity. There is also a suggestion the ET-1 is a neuropeptide, based mainly on its histological identification in both the central and peripheral nervous system in a number of species, including man. A neuropeptide role for ET-1 is supported by studies showing a variety of effects caused following its administration into different regions of the brain and by application to peripheral nerves. In addition there are studies proposing that ET-1 is implicated in a number of neural circuits where its transmitter affects range from a role in pain and temperature control to its action on the hypothalamo-neurosecretory system. While the effect of ET-1 on nerve tissue is beyond doubt, its action on nerve blood flow is often ignored. Here, we review data generated in a number of species and using a variety of experimental models. Studies range from those showing the distribution of ET-1 and its receptors in nerve tissue to those describing numerous neurally-mediated effects of ET-1.

No MeSH data available.