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Mark my words: tone of voice changes affective word representations in memory.

Schirmer A - PLoS ONE (2010)

Bottom Line: The present study explored the effect of speaker prosody on the representation of words in memory.Interestingly, the participants' ability to remember study prosody failed to predict this effect, suggesting that changes in word valence were implicit and associated with initial word processing rather than word retrieval.Taken together these results identify a mechanism by which speakers can have sustained effects on listener attitudes towards word referents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore. schirmer@nus.edu.sg

ABSTRACT
The present study explored the effect of speaker prosody on the representation of words in memory. To this end, participants were presented with a series of words and asked to remember the words for a subsequent recognition test. During study, words were presented auditorily with an emotional or neutral prosody, whereas during test, words were presented visually. Recognition performance was comparable for words studied with emotional and neutral prosody. However, subsequent valence ratings indicated that study prosody changed the affective representation of words in memory. Compared to words with neutral prosody, words with sad prosody were later rated as more negative and words with happy prosody were later rated as more positive. Interestingly, the participants' ability to remember study prosody failed to predict this effect, suggesting that changes in word valence were implicit and associated with initial word processing rather than word retrieval. Taken together these results identify a mechanism by which speakers can have sustained effects on listener attitudes towards word referents.

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Results from Experiment 2.Mean d' scores and standard errors reflecting the sensitivity of discriminating old from new words are illustrated in graph A. Mean reaction times to correctly recognized old words are illustrated in graph B. Mean valence ratings of correctly recognized old words are illustrated in graph C.
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pone-0009080-g002: Results from Experiment 2.Mean d' scores and standard errors reflecting the sensitivity of discriminating old from new words are illustrated in graph A. Mean reaction times to correctly recognized old words are illustrated in graph B. Mean valence ratings of correctly recognized old words are illustrated in graph C.

Mentions: The results of Experiment 2 are illustrated in Figure 2. The uncorrected probability of recognizing an old word as old was 0.74 (SD 0.15) for happy prosody and 0.73 (SD 0.15) for neutral prosody. Discrimination sensitivity as a function of study prosody was again assessed by computing d' scores and subjecting these scores to an ANOVA with Prosody as a repeated measures factor and Sex as a between subjects factor. With all other effects being non-significant (ps>.2), a marginal main effect of Sex suggested better word recognition in female as compared to male participants (F(1,30) = 4.13, p = .051). Again an ANOVA for reaction times was non-significant (ps>.12).


Mark my words: tone of voice changes affective word representations in memory.

Schirmer A - PLoS ONE (2010)

Results from Experiment 2.Mean d' scores and standard errors reflecting the sensitivity of discriminating old from new words are illustrated in graph A. Mean reaction times to correctly recognized old words are illustrated in graph B. Mean valence ratings of correctly recognized old words are illustrated in graph C.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2821399&req=5

pone-0009080-g002: Results from Experiment 2.Mean d' scores and standard errors reflecting the sensitivity of discriminating old from new words are illustrated in graph A. Mean reaction times to correctly recognized old words are illustrated in graph B. Mean valence ratings of correctly recognized old words are illustrated in graph C.
Mentions: The results of Experiment 2 are illustrated in Figure 2. The uncorrected probability of recognizing an old word as old was 0.74 (SD 0.15) for happy prosody and 0.73 (SD 0.15) for neutral prosody. Discrimination sensitivity as a function of study prosody was again assessed by computing d' scores and subjecting these scores to an ANOVA with Prosody as a repeated measures factor and Sex as a between subjects factor. With all other effects being non-significant (ps>.2), a marginal main effect of Sex suggested better word recognition in female as compared to male participants (F(1,30) = 4.13, p = .051). Again an ANOVA for reaction times was non-significant (ps>.12).

Bottom Line: The present study explored the effect of speaker prosody on the representation of words in memory.Interestingly, the participants' ability to remember study prosody failed to predict this effect, suggesting that changes in word valence were implicit and associated with initial word processing rather than word retrieval.Taken together these results identify a mechanism by which speakers can have sustained effects on listener attitudes towards word referents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore. schirmer@nus.edu.sg

ABSTRACT
The present study explored the effect of speaker prosody on the representation of words in memory. To this end, participants were presented with a series of words and asked to remember the words for a subsequent recognition test. During study, words were presented auditorily with an emotional or neutral prosody, whereas during test, words were presented visually. Recognition performance was comparable for words studied with emotional and neutral prosody. However, subsequent valence ratings indicated that study prosody changed the affective representation of words in memory. Compared to words with neutral prosody, words with sad prosody were later rated as more negative and words with happy prosody were later rated as more positive. Interestingly, the participants' ability to remember study prosody failed to predict this effect, suggesting that changes in word valence were implicit and associated with initial word processing rather than word retrieval. Taken together these results identify a mechanism by which speakers can have sustained effects on listener attitudes towards word referents.

Show MeSH