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The regulation of brain states by neuroactive substances distributed via the cerebrospinal fluid; a review.

Veening JG, Barendregt HP - Cerebrospinal Fluid Res (2010)

Bottom Line: Thus, many brain areas are exposed to and can be influenced by substances contained in the CSF.In addition, the available evidence for the release of neuropeptides and other neuroactive substances into the CSF is reviewed, with particular attention to the selective effects of these on distant downstream receptive brain areas.As a conclusion we suggest that (1) the flowing CSF is involved in more than just nutrient and waste control, but is also used as a broadcasting system consisting of coordinated messages to a variety of nearby and distant brain areas; (2) this special form of volume transmission underlies changes in behavioral states.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, (109) UMC St Radboud, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. j.g.veening@ru.nl

ABSTRACT
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) system provides nutrients to and removes waste products from the brain. Recent findings suggest, however, that in addition, the CSF contains message molecules in the form of actively released neuroactive substances. The concentrations of these vary between locations, suggesting they are important for the changes in brain activity that underlie different brain states, and induce different sensory input and behavioral output relationships.The cranial CSF displays a rapid caudally-directed ventricular flow followed by a slower rostrally-directed subarachnoid flow (mainly towards the cribriform plate and from there into the nasal lymphatics). Thus, many brain areas are exposed to and can be influenced by substances contained in the CSF. In this review we discuss the production and flow of the CSF, including the mechanisms involved in the regulation of its composition. In addition, the available evidence for the release of neuropeptides and other neuroactive substances into the CSF is reviewed, with particular attention to the selective effects of these on distant downstream receptive brain areas. As a conclusion we suggest that (1) the flowing CSF is involved in more than just nutrient and waste control, but is also used as a broadcasting system consisting of coordinated messages to a variety of nearby and distant brain areas; (2) this special form of volume transmission underlies changes in behavioral states.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A schematic diagram of structures and specialized cell types bordering the different parts of the mammalian ventricular system, and in contact with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The complexity of the system suggests that CSF functions are not limited to metabolic support of the brain and the release of waste products. Abbreviations: CO: caudal opening of the central canal of the spinal cord;H: hypothalamic CSF-contacting neurons; HY: Hypophysis; LV: lateral ventricle; ME: median eminence; O: vascular organ of the terminal lamina; PIN: pineal organ; R: raphe nuclei; RET: retina; RF: Reissner's fiber; SE: septal region; SCO: subcommissural organ; SP: medullo-spinal CSF-contacting neurons; TEL: telencephalon; TF: terminal filum; (Fig. 1 was kindly provided by Prof. B. Vigh. For details about specific cell types, the reader is referred to: Vigh and Vigh-Teichmann, [31], and to Vigh et al, [32]).
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Figure 1: A schematic diagram of structures and specialized cell types bordering the different parts of the mammalian ventricular system, and in contact with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The complexity of the system suggests that CSF functions are not limited to metabolic support of the brain and the release of waste products. Abbreviations: CO: caudal opening of the central canal of the spinal cord;H: hypothalamic CSF-contacting neurons; HY: Hypophysis; LV: lateral ventricle; ME: median eminence; O: vascular organ of the terminal lamina; PIN: pineal organ; R: raphe nuclei; RET: retina; RF: Reissner's fiber; SE: septal region; SCO: subcommissural organ; SP: medullo-spinal CSF-contacting neurons; TEL: telencephalon; TF: terminal filum; (Fig. 1 was kindly provided by Prof. B. Vigh. For details about specific cell types, the reader is referred to: Vigh and Vigh-Teichmann, [31], and to Vigh et al, [32]).

Mentions: Anatomically, the ventricular system of the vertebrate brain develops from a simple elongated cavity inside the neural tube, into a highly complex structure, filled with CSF (Fig 1) [10,30]. Vigh and others have extensively studied the specialisations and CSF-contacting neurons composing and surrounding the ventricular walls [31-35].


The regulation of brain states by neuroactive substances distributed via the cerebrospinal fluid; a review.

Veening JG, Barendregt HP - Cerebrospinal Fluid Res (2010)

A schematic diagram of structures and specialized cell types bordering the different parts of the mammalian ventricular system, and in contact with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The complexity of the system suggests that CSF functions are not limited to metabolic support of the brain and the release of waste products. Abbreviations: CO: caudal opening of the central canal of the spinal cord;H: hypothalamic CSF-contacting neurons; HY: Hypophysis; LV: lateral ventricle; ME: median eminence; O: vascular organ of the terminal lamina; PIN: pineal organ; R: raphe nuclei; RET: retina; RF: Reissner's fiber; SE: septal region; SCO: subcommissural organ; SP: medullo-spinal CSF-contacting neurons; TEL: telencephalon; TF: terminal filum; (Fig. 1 was kindly provided by Prof. B. Vigh. For details about specific cell types, the reader is referred to: Vigh and Vigh-Teichmann, [31], and to Vigh et al, [32]).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2821375&req=5

Figure 1: A schematic diagram of structures and specialized cell types bordering the different parts of the mammalian ventricular system, and in contact with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The complexity of the system suggests that CSF functions are not limited to metabolic support of the brain and the release of waste products. Abbreviations: CO: caudal opening of the central canal of the spinal cord;H: hypothalamic CSF-contacting neurons; HY: Hypophysis; LV: lateral ventricle; ME: median eminence; O: vascular organ of the terminal lamina; PIN: pineal organ; R: raphe nuclei; RET: retina; RF: Reissner's fiber; SE: septal region; SCO: subcommissural organ; SP: medullo-spinal CSF-contacting neurons; TEL: telencephalon; TF: terminal filum; (Fig. 1 was kindly provided by Prof. B. Vigh. For details about specific cell types, the reader is referred to: Vigh and Vigh-Teichmann, [31], and to Vigh et al, [32]).
Mentions: Anatomically, the ventricular system of the vertebrate brain develops from a simple elongated cavity inside the neural tube, into a highly complex structure, filled with CSF (Fig 1) [10,30]. Vigh and others have extensively studied the specialisations and CSF-contacting neurons composing and surrounding the ventricular walls [31-35].

Bottom Line: Thus, many brain areas are exposed to and can be influenced by substances contained in the CSF.In addition, the available evidence for the release of neuropeptides and other neuroactive substances into the CSF is reviewed, with particular attention to the selective effects of these on distant downstream receptive brain areas.As a conclusion we suggest that (1) the flowing CSF is involved in more than just nutrient and waste control, but is also used as a broadcasting system consisting of coordinated messages to a variety of nearby and distant brain areas; (2) this special form of volume transmission underlies changes in behavioral states.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, (109) UMC St Radboud, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. j.g.veening@ru.nl

ABSTRACT
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) system provides nutrients to and removes waste products from the brain. Recent findings suggest, however, that in addition, the CSF contains message molecules in the form of actively released neuroactive substances. The concentrations of these vary between locations, suggesting they are important for the changes in brain activity that underlie different brain states, and induce different sensory input and behavioral output relationships.The cranial CSF displays a rapid caudally-directed ventricular flow followed by a slower rostrally-directed subarachnoid flow (mainly towards the cribriform plate and from there into the nasal lymphatics). Thus, many brain areas are exposed to and can be influenced by substances contained in the CSF. In this review we discuss the production and flow of the CSF, including the mechanisms involved in the regulation of its composition. In addition, the available evidence for the release of neuropeptides and other neuroactive substances into the CSF is reviewed, with particular attention to the selective effects of these on distant downstream receptive brain areas. As a conclusion we suggest that (1) the flowing CSF is involved in more than just nutrient and waste control, but is also used as a broadcasting system consisting of coordinated messages to a variety of nearby and distant brain areas; (2) this special form of volume transmission underlies changes in behavioral states.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus