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Remote radio control of insect flight.

Sato H, Berry CW, Peeri Y, Baghoomian E, Casey BE, Lavella G, Vandenbrooks JM, Harrison JF, Maharbiz MM - Front Integr Neurosci (2009)

Bottom Line: Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles.We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely controlled beetles.We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California at Berkeley Berkeley, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Tetherless flight control system (∼230 mg total) mounted on Cotinis texana (Green June Beetle) using beeswax next to a US$ 0. 25 coin. A microcontroller provided potential pulses to four stimulating wire electrodes (∅125 μm) implanted into the brain, left and right basalar muscles and posterior pronotum (counter electrode). (B) Radio flight control system (∼1.3 g total) mounted on Mecynorrhina torquata using beeswax next to a US$ 0.25 coin. The system consisted of a microcontroller, a custom PCB, a dipole antenna, a microbattery and stimulating wire electrodes (∅125 μm) implanted as in Cotinis. (C) Front and (D) tilted views of dissected Cotinis beetle head showing the brain stimulator at implant site 1, optic lobe stimulator at implant site 2. The brain stimulator was implanted along the rostral–caudal midline of the head, at the center between the left and right compound eyes. Implant site 2 was at the interior edge of each compound eye. (E) Sagittal section of thorax showing the counter electrode at implant site 3 and the basalar muscle stimulator at implant site 4. (F) Cross-section of mesothorax showing the basalar muscle stimulator sites (implant site 4 on left and right sides). The basalar muscle stimulator was implanted midway between sternum and notum of mesothorax to a depth of approximately 1 cm in rostral–caudal direction on either the left or right side of the insect. The blue letters X and bars indicate implant sites and approximate implant lengths, respectively. Mecynorrhina torquata has nearly identical, scaled anatomy to Cotinis texana.
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Figure 1: (A) Tetherless flight control system (∼230 mg total) mounted on Cotinis texana (Green June Beetle) using beeswax next to a US$ 0. 25 coin. A microcontroller provided potential pulses to four stimulating wire electrodes (∅125 μm) implanted into the brain, left and right basalar muscles and posterior pronotum (counter electrode). (B) Radio flight control system (∼1.3 g total) mounted on Mecynorrhina torquata using beeswax next to a US$ 0.25 coin. The system consisted of a microcontroller, a custom PCB, a dipole antenna, a microbattery and stimulating wire electrodes (∅125 μm) implanted as in Cotinis. (C) Front and (D) tilted views of dissected Cotinis beetle head showing the brain stimulator at implant site 1, optic lobe stimulator at implant site 2. The brain stimulator was implanted along the rostral–caudal midline of the head, at the center between the left and right compound eyes. Implant site 2 was at the interior edge of each compound eye. (E) Sagittal section of thorax showing the counter electrode at implant site 3 and the basalar muscle stimulator at implant site 4. (F) Cross-section of mesothorax showing the basalar muscle stimulator sites (implant site 4 on left and right sides). The basalar muscle stimulator was implanted midway between sternum and notum of mesothorax to a depth of approximately 1 cm in rostral–caudal direction on either the left or right side of the insect. The blue letters X and bars indicate implant sites and approximate implant lengths, respectively. Mecynorrhina torquata has nearly identical, scaled anatomy to Cotinis texana.

Mentions: Our initial experiments focused on the smaller Cotinis beetle using a system capable of tetherless control of beetles without wireless communication. We pre-programmed flight instructions using a microcontroller (Figure 1A and Figure 1 in Supplementary Material; Texas Instruments, MSP430F2012IPWR, 63 mg, 5.0 mm × 4.5 mm × 1.0 mm) powered by a rechargeable lithium ion coin battery (Panasonic, ML614, 3.0 V, 160 mg, ∅6.8 mm × 1.4 mm, 3.4 mAh), mounted on the pronotum. We then began applying the stimulation patterns studied in Cotinis to the larger Mecynorrhina using a miniaturized radio frequency (RF) system capable of wireless communication and application of stimulation in free flight. This system used two CC2431 microcontrollers (6 mm × 6 mm, 130 mg, 2.4 GHz); one acting as the beetle-mounted RF receiver (Figure 1B and Figure 2 in Supplementary Material) and one as computer-driven RF transmitter base station. The RF receiver was powered by a rechargeable lithium ion battery (Micro Avionics, 3.9 V, 350 mg, 8.5 mAh,). Electrical signals generated by either microcontroller drove steel wire electrodes (∅125 μm) implanted into the brain, optic lobes and basalar muscles (implant sites 1, 2 and 4 in Figure 1, respectively). A common counter-electrode for the brain and basalar muscle stimuli was implanted into the posterior pronotum (implant site 3 in Figure 1).


Remote radio control of insect flight.

Sato H, Berry CW, Peeri Y, Baghoomian E, Casey BE, Lavella G, Vandenbrooks JM, Harrison JF, Maharbiz MM - Front Integr Neurosci (2009)

(A) Tetherless flight control system (∼230 mg total) mounted on Cotinis texana (Green June Beetle) using beeswax next to a US$ 0. 25 coin. A microcontroller provided potential pulses to four stimulating wire electrodes (∅125 μm) implanted into the brain, left and right basalar muscles and posterior pronotum (counter electrode). (B) Radio flight control system (∼1.3 g total) mounted on Mecynorrhina torquata using beeswax next to a US$ 0.25 coin. The system consisted of a microcontroller, a custom PCB, a dipole antenna, a microbattery and stimulating wire electrodes (∅125 μm) implanted as in Cotinis. (C) Front and (D) tilted views of dissected Cotinis beetle head showing the brain stimulator at implant site 1, optic lobe stimulator at implant site 2. The brain stimulator was implanted along the rostral–caudal midline of the head, at the center between the left and right compound eyes. Implant site 2 was at the interior edge of each compound eye. (E) Sagittal section of thorax showing the counter electrode at implant site 3 and the basalar muscle stimulator at implant site 4. (F) Cross-section of mesothorax showing the basalar muscle stimulator sites (implant site 4 on left and right sides). The basalar muscle stimulator was implanted midway between sternum and notum of mesothorax to a depth of approximately 1 cm in rostral–caudal direction on either the left or right side of the insect. The blue letters X and bars indicate implant sites and approximate implant lengths, respectively. Mecynorrhina torquata has nearly identical, scaled anatomy to Cotinis texana.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2821177&req=5

Figure 1: (A) Tetherless flight control system (∼230 mg total) mounted on Cotinis texana (Green June Beetle) using beeswax next to a US$ 0. 25 coin. A microcontroller provided potential pulses to four stimulating wire electrodes (∅125 μm) implanted into the brain, left and right basalar muscles and posterior pronotum (counter electrode). (B) Radio flight control system (∼1.3 g total) mounted on Mecynorrhina torquata using beeswax next to a US$ 0.25 coin. The system consisted of a microcontroller, a custom PCB, a dipole antenna, a microbattery and stimulating wire electrodes (∅125 μm) implanted as in Cotinis. (C) Front and (D) tilted views of dissected Cotinis beetle head showing the brain stimulator at implant site 1, optic lobe stimulator at implant site 2. The brain stimulator was implanted along the rostral–caudal midline of the head, at the center between the left and right compound eyes. Implant site 2 was at the interior edge of each compound eye. (E) Sagittal section of thorax showing the counter electrode at implant site 3 and the basalar muscle stimulator at implant site 4. (F) Cross-section of mesothorax showing the basalar muscle stimulator sites (implant site 4 on left and right sides). The basalar muscle stimulator was implanted midway between sternum and notum of mesothorax to a depth of approximately 1 cm in rostral–caudal direction on either the left or right side of the insect. The blue letters X and bars indicate implant sites and approximate implant lengths, respectively. Mecynorrhina torquata has nearly identical, scaled anatomy to Cotinis texana.
Mentions: Our initial experiments focused on the smaller Cotinis beetle using a system capable of tetherless control of beetles without wireless communication. We pre-programmed flight instructions using a microcontroller (Figure 1A and Figure 1 in Supplementary Material; Texas Instruments, MSP430F2012IPWR, 63 mg, 5.0 mm × 4.5 mm × 1.0 mm) powered by a rechargeable lithium ion coin battery (Panasonic, ML614, 3.0 V, 160 mg, ∅6.8 mm × 1.4 mm, 3.4 mAh), mounted on the pronotum. We then began applying the stimulation patterns studied in Cotinis to the larger Mecynorrhina using a miniaturized radio frequency (RF) system capable of wireless communication and application of stimulation in free flight. This system used two CC2431 microcontrollers (6 mm × 6 mm, 130 mg, 2.4 GHz); one acting as the beetle-mounted RF receiver (Figure 1B and Figure 2 in Supplementary Material) and one as computer-driven RF transmitter base station. The RF receiver was powered by a rechargeable lithium ion battery (Micro Avionics, 3.9 V, 350 mg, 8.5 mAh,). Electrical signals generated by either microcontroller drove steel wire electrodes (∅125 μm) implanted into the brain, optic lobes and basalar muscles (implant sites 1, 2 and 4 in Figure 1, respectively). A common counter-electrode for the brain and basalar muscle stimuli was implanted into the posterior pronotum (implant site 3 in Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles.We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely controlled beetles.We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California at Berkeley Berkeley, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus