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Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in East Asia.

Takada M, Tachihara K, Kon T, Yamamoto G, Iguchi K, Miya M, Nishida M - BMC Evol. Biol. (2010)

Bottom Line: Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids.The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in East Asia that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined.An overall phylogenetic framework obtained from the present study will be of use for estimating the phylogenetic relationships of Carassius fishes on the Eurasian continent.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Fisheries Biology & Coral Reef Studies, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan. takada@ori.u-tokyo.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Background: Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in East Asia. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in East Asia.

Results: We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded); CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in East Asia. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya) by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids.

Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in East Asia that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and diploids indicates that triploids are not composed of a single independent lineage. The ancient origins and evolutionary uniqueness of the seven lineages warrant their conservation. An overall phylogenetic framework obtained from the present study will be of use for estimating the phylogenetic relationships of Carassius fishes on the Eurasian continent.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Supermatrix tree of Carassius auratus with additional sequences. Maximum likelihood (ML) supermatrix tree generated using the best-scoring concatenated ML tree (Figure 4) as a backbone constraint. Accession numbers of the sequences are as follows: #1, DQ399917-19; #2, DQ399938; #3, DQ399930, DQ399932, DQ868879, EU186830; #4, DQ868876-78; #5, EF633624, EF633626, EF633633; #6, AB27415; #7, EF633617; #8, EF633622; #9, EF633625, EF633634; #10, EF633621, EF633627-32, EF633642, EF633646-80, AB377293-99, AB273316, AJ388413; #11, DQ399926; #12, DQ399927, DQ399933-34; #13, DQ399929, DQ399931, DQ399935-47, DQ399940; #14, EF633620; #15, EF633638; #16, EU754018-20; #17, EF633637; #18, EF633618-19, EF633623, EF633635-36, AB274414; #19, AB378296; #20, AB378293, AB378295, AB378298-99; #21, AB379916, AB379919, AB379923-29, AB379931-33, AB379935-41, AB379945-46, AB379948-50, AB379952, AB379957-58; #22, AB379930, AB379934, AB379942-44, AB379947, AB379951, AB379953-54, AB379956, AB379959; #23, AB379922. Numbers above the internal branches are bootstrap values, which are given only for the nodes of major clades. Haplotype numbers of concatenated sequences correspond to those in Figure 4. Haplotype numbers of newly added sequences are followed by the names of the regions of mitochondrial DNA sequences, locality, and number of sequences. Roman numerals on the right side of the tree denote clade code numbers.
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Figure 5: Supermatrix tree of Carassius auratus with additional sequences. Maximum likelihood (ML) supermatrix tree generated using the best-scoring concatenated ML tree (Figure 4) as a backbone constraint. Accession numbers of the sequences are as follows: #1, DQ399917-19; #2, DQ399938; #3, DQ399930, DQ399932, DQ868879, EU186830; #4, DQ868876-78; #5, EF633624, EF633626, EF633633; #6, AB27415; #7, EF633617; #8, EF633622; #9, EF633625, EF633634; #10, EF633621, EF633627-32, EF633642, EF633646-80, AB377293-99, AB273316, AJ388413; #11, DQ399926; #12, DQ399927, DQ399933-34; #13, DQ399929, DQ399931, DQ399935-47, DQ399940; #14, EF633620; #15, EF633638; #16, EU754018-20; #17, EF633637; #18, EF633618-19, EF633623, EF633635-36, AB274414; #19, AB378296; #20, AB378293, AB378295, AB378298-99; #21, AB379916, AB379919, AB379923-29, AB379931-33, AB379935-41, AB379945-46, AB379948-50, AB379952, AB379957-58; #22, AB379930, AB379934, AB379942-44, AB379947, AB379951, AB379953-54, AB379956, AB379959; #23, AB379922. Numbers above the internal branches are bootstrap values, which are given only for the nodes of major clades. Haplotype numbers of concatenated sequences correspond to those in Figure 4. Haplotype numbers of newly added sequences are followed by the names of the regions of mitochondrial DNA sequences, locality, and number of sequences. Roman numerals on the right side of the tree denote clade code numbers.

Mentions: The results of supermatrix analysis performed using the best-scoring ML tree topology as a backbone constraint are shown in Figure 5. All newly downloaded sequences of C. auratus from around the world were nested in either of the seven major clades detected in our analyses; these sequences did not form a new major clade. Carassius carassius was placed as a sister group of the C. auratus-complex.


Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in East Asia.

Takada M, Tachihara K, Kon T, Yamamoto G, Iguchi K, Miya M, Nishida M - BMC Evol. Biol. (2010)

Supermatrix tree of Carassius auratus with additional sequences. Maximum likelihood (ML) supermatrix tree generated using the best-scoring concatenated ML tree (Figure 4) as a backbone constraint. Accession numbers of the sequences are as follows: #1, DQ399917-19; #2, DQ399938; #3, DQ399930, DQ399932, DQ868879, EU186830; #4, DQ868876-78; #5, EF633624, EF633626, EF633633; #6, AB27415; #7, EF633617; #8, EF633622; #9, EF633625, EF633634; #10, EF633621, EF633627-32, EF633642, EF633646-80, AB377293-99, AB273316, AJ388413; #11, DQ399926; #12, DQ399927, DQ399933-34; #13, DQ399929, DQ399931, DQ399935-47, DQ399940; #14, EF633620; #15, EF633638; #16, EU754018-20; #17, EF633637; #18, EF633618-19, EF633623, EF633635-36, AB274414; #19, AB378296; #20, AB378293, AB378295, AB378298-99; #21, AB379916, AB379919, AB379923-29, AB379931-33, AB379935-41, AB379945-46, AB379948-50, AB379952, AB379957-58; #22, AB379930, AB379934, AB379942-44, AB379947, AB379951, AB379953-54, AB379956, AB379959; #23, AB379922. Numbers above the internal branches are bootstrap values, which are given only for the nodes of major clades. Haplotype numbers of concatenated sequences correspond to those in Figure 4. Haplotype numbers of newly added sequences are followed by the names of the regions of mitochondrial DNA sequences, locality, and number of sequences. Roman numerals on the right side of the tree denote clade code numbers.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2820001&req=5

Figure 5: Supermatrix tree of Carassius auratus with additional sequences. Maximum likelihood (ML) supermatrix tree generated using the best-scoring concatenated ML tree (Figure 4) as a backbone constraint. Accession numbers of the sequences are as follows: #1, DQ399917-19; #2, DQ399938; #3, DQ399930, DQ399932, DQ868879, EU186830; #4, DQ868876-78; #5, EF633624, EF633626, EF633633; #6, AB27415; #7, EF633617; #8, EF633622; #9, EF633625, EF633634; #10, EF633621, EF633627-32, EF633642, EF633646-80, AB377293-99, AB273316, AJ388413; #11, DQ399926; #12, DQ399927, DQ399933-34; #13, DQ399929, DQ399931, DQ399935-47, DQ399940; #14, EF633620; #15, EF633638; #16, EU754018-20; #17, EF633637; #18, EF633618-19, EF633623, EF633635-36, AB274414; #19, AB378296; #20, AB378293, AB378295, AB378298-99; #21, AB379916, AB379919, AB379923-29, AB379931-33, AB379935-41, AB379945-46, AB379948-50, AB379952, AB379957-58; #22, AB379930, AB379934, AB379942-44, AB379947, AB379951, AB379953-54, AB379956, AB379959; #23, AB379922. Numbers above the internal branches are bootstrap values, which are given only for the nodes of major clades. Haplotype numbers of concatenated sequences correspond to those in Figure 4. Haplotype numbers of newly added sequences are followed by the names of the regions of mitochondrial DNA sequences, locality, and number of sequences. Roman numerals on the right side of the tree denote clade code numbers.
Mentions: The results of supermatrix analysis performed using the best-scoring ML tree topology as a backbone constraint are shown in Figure 5. All newly downloaded sequences of C. auratus from around the world were nested in either of the seven major clades detected in our analyses; these sequences did not form a new major clade. Carassius carassius was placed as a sister group of the C. auratus-complex.

Bottom Line: Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids.The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in East Asia that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined.An overall phylogenetic framework obtained from the present study will be of use for estimating the phylogenetic relationships of Carassius fishes on the Eurasian continent.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Fisheries Biology & Coral Reef Studies, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan. takada@ori.u-tokyo.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Background: Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in East Asia. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in East Asia.

Results: We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded); CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in East Asia. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya) by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids.

Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in East Asia that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and diploids indicates that triploids are not composed of a single independent lineage. The ancient origins and evolutionary uniqueness of the seven lineages warrant their conservation. An overall phylogenetic framework obtained from the present study will be of use for estimating the phylogenetic relationships of Carassius fishes on the Eurasian continent.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus