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Nanofunctionalized zirconia and barium sulfate particles as bone cement additives.

Gillani R, Ercan B, Qiao A, Webster TJ - Int J Nanomedicine (2010)

Bottom Line: Results demonstrated that in vitro osteoblast (bone-forming cell) densities were greater on bone cements containing BaSO(4) ceramic particles after four hours compared to control unmodified bone cements.Osteoblast densities were also greater on bone cements containing all of the ceramic particles after 24 hours compared to unmodified bone cements, particularly those bone cements containing nanofunctionalized ceramic particles.Bone cements containing ceramic particles demonstrated significantly altered mechanical properties; specifically, under tensile loading, plain bone cements and bone cements containing unfunctionalized ceramic particles exhibited brittle failure modes whereas bone cements containing nanofunctionalized ceramic particles exhibited plastic failure modes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Engineering and Department of Orthopaedics, Brown University, 184 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912, USA.

ABSTRACT
Zirconia (ZrO(2)) and barium sulfate (BaSO(4)) particles were introduced into a methyl methacrylate monomer (MMA) solution with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) beads during polymerization to develop the following novel bone cements: bone cements with unfunctionalized ZrO(2) micron particles, bone cements with unfunctionalized ZrO(2) nanoparticles, bone cements with ZrO(2) nanoparticles functionalized with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMS), bone cements with unfunctionalized BaSO(4) micron particles, bone cements with unfunctionalized BaSO(4) nanoparticles, and bone cements with BaSO(4) nanoparticles functionalized with TMS. Results demonstrated that in vitro osteoblast (bone-forming cell) densities were greater on bone cements containing BaSO(4) ceramic particles after four hours compared to control unmodified bone cements. Osteoblast densities were also greater on bone cements containing all of the ceramic particles after 24 hours compared to unmodified bone cements, particularly those bone cements containing nanofunctionalized ceramic particles. Bone cements containing ceramic particles demonstrated significantly altered mechanical properties; specifically, under tensile loading, plain bone cements and bone cements containing unfunctionalized ceramic particles exhibited brittle failure modes whereas bone cements containing nanofunctionalized ceramic particles exhibited plastic failure modes. Finally, all bone cements containing ceramic particles possessed greater radio-opacity than unmodified bone cements. In summary, the results of this study demonstrated a positive impact on the properties of traditional bone cements for orthopedic applications with the addition of unfunctionalized and TMS functionalized ceramic nanoparticles.

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Osteoblast cell-density, after 24 hours, as a function of bone cement type. Data = mean +/− SEM; N = 3. Plain = Unmodified bone cements, BM = Bone cements with micron particulate BaSO4, BN = Bone cements with unfunctionalized BaSO4 nanoparticles, BNFT = Bone cements with functionalized BaSO4 nanoparticles, ZM = Bone cements with micron particulate ZrO2, ZN = Bone cements with unfunctionalized ZrO2 nanoparticles, ZNFT = Bone cements with functionalized ZrO2 nanoparticles. *Compared to plain bone cement, adhesion on bone cements containing all ceramic particles was found to be greater: micron particulate BaSO4 (p < 0.1), unfunctionalized BaSO4 nano-particles (p < 0.005), ZrO2 nano-particles functionalized with TMS (p < 0.005), BaSO4 nano-particles functionalized with TMS (p < 0.001), micron ZrO2 particles (p < 0.001), and unfunctionalized ZrO2 nano-particles (p < 0.001). ΨCompared to bone cements containing micron BaSO4 particles, adhesion was found to be greater on bone cements containing BaSO4 nano-particles functionalized with TMS (p < 0.05). €WRT bone cements containing micron ZrO2 particles, adhesion was found to be greater on bone cements containing unfunctionalized ZrO2 nano-particles (p < 0.05) and ZrO2 nano-particles functionalized with TMS (p < 0.1).
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f3-ijn-5-001: Osteoblast cell-density, after 24 hours, as a function of bone cement type. Data = mean +/− SEM; N = 3. Plain = Unmodified bone cements, BM = Bone cements with micron particulate BaSO4, BN = Bone cements with unfunctionalized BaSO4 nanoparticles, BNFT = Bone cements with functionalized BaSO4 nanoparticles, ZM = Bone cements with micron particulate ZrO2, ZN = Bone cements with unfunctionalized ZrO2 nanoparticles, ZNFT = Bone cements with functionalized ZrO2 nanoparticles. *Compared to plain bone cement, adhesion on bone cements containing all ceramic particles was found to be greater: micron particulate BaSO4 (p < 0.1), unfunctionalized BaSO4 nano-particles (p < 0.005), ZrO2 nano-particles functionalized with TMS (p < 0.005), BaSO4 nano-particles functionalized with TMS (p < 0.001), micron ZrO2 particles (p < 0.001), and unfunctionalized ZrO2 nano-particles (p < 0.001). ΨCompared to bone cements containing micron BaSO4 particles, adhesion was found to be greater on bone cements containing BaSO4 nano-particles functionalized with TMS (p < 0.05). €WRT bone cements containing micron ZrO2 particles, adhesion was found to be greater on bone cements containing unfunctionalized ZrO2 nano-particles (p < 0.05) and ZrO2 nano-particles functionalized with TMS (p < 0.1).

Mentions: After 24 hours, results demonstrated greater osteoblast density on all bone cements containing ceramic particles (P < 0.1 for BaSO4 micron particles, P < 0.005 for unfunctionalized BaSO4 nanoparticles and ZrO2 nanoparticles functionalized with TMS, and P < 0.001 for BaSO4 nanoparticles functionalized with TMS, ZrO2 micron particles, and unfunctionalized ZrO2 nanoparticles) compared to unmodified bone cements (Figure 3). Additionally, compared to bone cements containing BaSO4 micron particles, osteoblast density was found to be greater on bone cements containing functionalized BaSO4 nanoparticles (P < 0.1). Finally, compared to bone cements containing ZrO2 micron particles, osteoblast density was greater on bone cements containing ZrO2 nanoparticles, both unfunctionalized (P < 0.05) and functionalized with TMS (P < 0.1). The average cell densities (cells/cm2) for each type of bone cement, plus or minus one standard error, were as follows: unmodified bone cements (Plain): 869 ± 138.4, bone cements with BaSO4 micron particles (BM): 1098 ± 138.1, bone cements with unfunctionalized BaSO4 nanoparticles (BN): 1335 ± 152.2, bone cements with BaSO4 nanoparticles functionalized with TMS (BNFT): 1545 ± 167, bone cements with micron ZrO2 particles (ZM): 1440 ± 144.3, bone cements with unfunctionalized ZrO2 nanoparticles (ZN): 2104 ± 257.2, and bone cements with ZrO2 nanoparticles functionalized with TMS (ZNFT): 2039 ± 353.


Nanofunctionalized zirconia and barium sulfate particles as bone cement additives.

Gillani R, Ercan B, Qiao A, Webster TJ - Int J Nanomedicine (2010)

Osteoblast cell-density, after 24 hours, as a function of bone cement type. Data = mean +/− SEM; N = 3. Plain = Unmodified bone cements, BM = Bone cements with micron particulate BaSO4, BN = Bone cements with unfunctionalized BaSO4 nanoparticles, BNFT = Bone cements with functionalized BaSO4 nanoparticles, ZM = Bone cements with micron particulate ZrO2, ZN = Bone cements with unfunctionalized ZrO2 nanoparticles, ZNFT = Bone cements with functionalized ZrO2 nanoparticles. *Compared to plain bone cement, adhesion on bone cements containing all ceramic particles was found to be greater: micron particulate BaSO4 (p < 0.1), unfunctionalized BaSO4 nano-particles (p < 0.005), ZrO2 nano-particles functionalized with TMS (p < 0.005), BaSO4 nano-particles functionalized with TMS (p < 0.001), micron ZrO2 particles (p < 0.001), and unfunctionalized ZrO2 nano-particles (p < 0.001). ΨCompared to bone cements containing micron BaSO4 particles, adhesion was found to be greater on bone cements containing BaSO4 nano-particles functionalized with TMS (p < 0.05). €WRT bone cements containing micron ZrO2 particles, adhesion was found to be greater on bone cements containing unfunctionalized ZrO2 nano-particles (p < 0.05) and ZrO2 nano-particles functionalized with TMS (p < 0.1).
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f3-ijn-5-001: Osteoblast cell-density, after 24 hours, as a function of bone cement type. Data = mean +/− SEM; N = 3. Plain = Unmodified bone cements, BM = Bone cements with micron particulate BaSO4, BN = Bone cements with unfunctionalized BaSO4 nanoparticles, BNFT = Bone cements with functionalized BaSO4 nanoparticles, ZM = Bone cements with micron particulate ZrO2, ZN = Bone cements with unfunctionalized ZrO2 nanoparticles, ZNFT = Bone cements with functionalized ZrO2 nanoparticles. *Compared to plain bone cement, adhesion on bone cements containing all ceramic particles was found to be greater: micron particulate BaSO4 (p < 0.1), unfunctionalized BaSO4 nano-particles (p < 0.005), ZrO2 nano-particles functionalized with TMS (p < 0.005), BaSO4 nano-particles functionalized with TMS (p < 0.001), micron ZrO2 particles (p < 0.001), and unfunctionalized ZrO2 nano-particles (p < 0.001). ΨCompared to bone cements containing micron BaSO4 particles, adhesion was found to be greater on bone cements containing BaSO4 nano-particles functionalized with TMS (p < 0.05). €WRT bone cements containing micron ZrO2 particles, adhesion was found to be greater on bone cements containing unfunctionalized ZrO2 nano-particles (p < 0.05) and ZrO2 nano-particles functionalized with TMS (p < 0.1).
Mentions: After 24 hours, results demonstrated greater osteoblast density on all bone cements containing ceramic particles (P < 0.1 for BaSO4 micron particles, P < 0.005 for unfunctionalized BaSO4 nanoparticles and ZrO2 nanoparticles functionalized with TMS, and P < 0.001 for BaSO4 nanoparticles functionalized with TMS, ZrO2 micron particles, and unfunctionalized ZrO2 nanoparticles) compared to unmodified bone cements (Figure 3). Additionally, compared to bone cements containing BaSO4 micron particles, osteoblast density was found to be greater on bone cements containing functionalized BaSO4 nanoparticles (P < 0.1). Finally, compared to bone cements containing ZrO2 micron particles, osteoblast density was greater on bone cements containing ZrO2 nanoparticles, both unfunctionalized (P < 0.05) and functionalized with TMS (P < 0.1). The average cell densities (cells/cm2) for each type of bone cement, plus or minus one standard error, were as follows: unmodified bone cements (Plain): 869 ± 138.4, bone cements with BaSO4 micron particles (BM): 1098 ± 138.1, bone cements with unfunctionalized BaSO4 nanoparticles (BN): 1335 ± 152.2, bone cements with BaSO4 nanoparticles functionalized with TMS (BNFT): 1545 ± 167, bone cements with micron ZrO2 particles (ZM): 1440 ± 144.3, bone cements with unfunctionalized ZrO2 nanoparticles (ZN): 2104 ± 257.2, and bone cements with ZrO2 nanoparticles functionalized with TMS (ZNFT): 2039 ± 353.

Bottom Line: Results demonstrated that in vitro osteoblast (bone-forming cell) densities were greater on bone cements containing BaSO(4) ceramic particles after four hours compared to control unmodified bone cements.Osteoblast densities were also greater on bone cements containing all of the ceramic particles after 24 hours compared to unmodified bone cements, particularly those bone cements containing nanofunctionalized ceramic particles.Bone cements containing ceramic particles demonstrated significantly altered mechanical properties; specifically, under tensile loading, plain bone cements and bone cements containing unfunctionalized ceramic particles exhibited brittle failure modes whereas bone cements containing nanofunctionalized ceramic particles exhibited plastic failure modes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Engineering and Department of Orthopaedics, Brown University, 184 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912, USA.

ABSTRACT
Zirconia (ZrO(2)) and barium sulfate (BaSO(4)) particles were introduced into a methyl methacrylate monomer (MMA) solution with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) beads during polymerization to develop the following novel bone cements: bone cements with unfunctionalized ZrO(2) micron particles, bone cements with unfunctionalized ZrO(2) nanoparticles, bone cements with ZrO(2) nanoparticles functionalized with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMS), bone cements with unfunctionalized BaSO(4) micron particles, bone cements with unfunctionalized BaSO(4) nanoparticles, and bone cements with BaSO(4) nanoparticles functionalized with TMS. Results demonstrated that in vitro osteoblast (bone-forming cell) densities were greater on bone cements containing BaSO(4) ceramic particles after four hours compared to control unmodified bone cements. Osteoblast densities were also greater on bone cements containing all of the ceramic particles after 24 hours compared to unmodified bone cements, particularly those bone cements containing nanofunctionalized ceramic particles. Bone cements containing ceramic particles demonstrated significantly altered mechanical properties; specifically, under tensile loading, plain bone cements and bone cements containing unfunctionalized ceramic particles exhibited brittle failure modes whereas bone cements containing nanofunctionalized ceramic particles exhibited plastic failure modes. Finally, all bone cements containing ceramic particles possessed greater radio-opacity than unmodified bone cements. In summary, the results of this study demonstrated a positive impact on the properties of traditional bone cements for orthopedic applications with the addition of unfunctionalized and TMS functionalized ceramic nanoparticles.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus