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Recent ancestry of Kyasanur Forest disease virus.

Mehla R, Kumar SR, Yadav P, Barde PV, Yergolkar PN, Erickson BR, Carroll SA, Mishra AC, Nichol ST, Mourya DT - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2009)

Bottom Line: Bayesian coalescence analysis of these sequences and those of KFDVs from Saudi Arabia and the People's Republic of China estimated that KFDVs have evolved at a mean rate of approximately 6.4 x 10(-4) substitutions/site/year, which is similar to rates estimated for mosquito-borne flaviviruses.KFDVs were estimated to have shared a common ancestor in approximately 1942, fifteen years before identification of the disease in India.These data are consistent with the view that KFD represented a newly emerged disease when first recognized.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Virology, Pune, India.

ABSTRACT
Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) is enzootic to India and maintained in ticks, mammals, and birds. It causes severe febrile illness in humans and was first recognized in 1957 associated with a high number of deaths among monkeys in Kyasanur Forest. Genetic analysis of 48 viruses isolated in India during 1957-2006 showed low diversity (1.2%). Bayesian coalescence analysis of these sequences and those of KFDVs from Saudi Arabia and the People's Republic of China estimated that KFDVs have evolved at a mean rate of approximately 6.4 x 10(-4) substitutions/site/year, which is similar to rates estimated for mosquito-borne flaviviruses. KFDVs were estimated to have shared a common ancestor in approximately 1942, fifteen years before identification of the disease in India. These data are consistent with the view that KFD represented a newly emerged disease when first recognized. Recent common ancestry of KFDVs from India and Saudi Arabia, despite their large geographic separation, indicates long-range movement of virus, possibly by birds.

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Bayesian coalescent analysis of sequence differences of Kyasanur Forest disease virus isolates from India (1957–2006), People’s Republic of China (1989), and Saudi Arabia (1995–2004). Analysis was conducted by using the general time reversible model incorporating invariant sites, a relaxed molecular clock, constant population size, and the BEAST, BEAUTi, and Tracer analysis software (26). The maximum clade credibility tree is depicted. Posterior probability values are indicated for clades of interest with the time to most recent common ancestor shown below. Scale bar indicates nucleotide substitutions per site.
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Figure 2: Bayesian coalescent analysis of sequence differences of Kyasanur Forest disease virus isolates from India (1957–2006), People’s Republic of China (1989), and Saudi Arabia (1995–2004). Analysis was conducted by using the general time reversible model incorporating invariant sites, a relaxed molecular clock, constant population size, and the BEAST, BEAUTi, and Tracer analysis software (26). The maximum clade credibility tree is depicted. Posterior probability values are indicated for clades of interest with the time to most recent common ancestor shown below. Scale bar indicates nucleotide substitutions per site.

Mentions: Bayesian coalescent analysis of sequence differences among the 48 KFDV isolates from India (1957–2006), the isolates from Saudi Arabia (1995–2004) (28,29), and the reported isolate from China (1989) (12) was conducted to estimate the rate of evolution and time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for these viruses (Figure 2). These viruses were estimated to be evolving at a mean rate of 6.4 × 10–4 substitutions/site/year (95% highest probable density [HPD] 4.1–8.8 × 10–4 substitutions/site/year). This estimate is similar to rates for other flaviviruses analyzed by using similar Bayesian coalescent methods, including a rate of 2.17 × 10–4 substitutions/site/year obtained for 23 St. Louis encephalitis viruses collected during 1933–2001 (30) and a rate of 4.2 × 10–4 substitutions/site/year for yellow fever virus (31). The finding of similar evolutionary rates for tick-borne and mosquito-borne flaviviruses was unexpected, given earlier assertions that evolution of tick-borne viruses was more gradual than rapidly evolving mosquito-borne viruses (19).


Recent ancestry of Kyasanur Forest disease virus.

Mehla R, Kumar SR, Yadav P, Barde PV, Yergolkar PN, Erickson BR, Carroll SA, Mishra AC, Nichol ST, Mourya DT - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2009)

Bayesian coalescent analysis of sequence differences of Kyasanur Forest disease virus isolates from India (1957–2006), People’s Republic of China (1989), and Saudi Arabia (1995–2004). Analysis was conducted by using the general time reversible model incorporating invariant sites, a relaxed molecular clock, constant population size, and the BEAST, BEAUTi, and Tracer analysis software (26). The maximum clade credibility tree is depicted. Posterior probability values are indicated for clades of interest with the time to most recent common ancestor shown below. Scale bar indicates nucleotide substitutions per site.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2819879&req=5

Figure 2: Bayesian coalescent analysis of sequence differences of Kyasanur Forest disease virus isolates from India (1957–2006), People’s Republic of China (1989), and Saudi Arabia (1995–2004). Analysis was conducted by using the general time reversible model incorporating invariant sites, a relaxed molecular clock, constant population size, and the BEAST, BEAUTi, and Tracer analysis software (26). The maximum clade credibility tree is depicted. Posterior probability values are indicated for clades of interest with the time to most recent common ancestor shown below. Scale bar indicates nucleotide substitutions per site.
Mentions: Bayesian coalescent analysis of sequence differences among the 48 KFDV isolates from India (1957–2006), the isolates from Saudi Arabia (1995–2004) (28,29), and the reported isolate from China (1989) (12) was conducted to estimate the rate of evolution and time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for these viruses (Figure 2). These viruses were estimated to be evolving at a mean rate of 6.4 × 10–4 substitutions/site/year (95% highest probable density [HPD] 4.1–8.8 × 10–4 substitutions/site/year). This estimate is similar to rates for other flaviviruses analyzed by using similar Bayesian coalescent methods, including a rate of 2.17 × 10–4 substitutions/site/year obtained for 23 St. Louis encephalitis viruses collected during 1933–2001 (30) and a rate of 4.2 × 10–4 substitutions/site/year for yellow fever virus (31). The finding of similar evolutionary rates for tick-borne and mosquito-borne flaviviruses was unexpected, given earlier assertions that evolution of tick-borne viruses was more gradual than rapidly evolving mosquito-borne viruses (19).

Bottom Line: Bayesian coalescence analysis of these sequences and those of KFDVs from Saudi Arabia and the People's Republic of China estimated that KFDVs have evolved at a mean rate of approximately 6.4 x 10(-4) substitutions/site/year, which is similar to rates estimated for mosquito-borne flaviviruses.KFDVs were estimated to have shared a common ancestor in approximately 1942, fifteen years before identification of the disease in India.These data are consistent with the view that KFD represented a newly emerged disease when first recognized.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Virology, Pune, India.

ABSTRACT
Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) is enzootic to India and maintained in ticks, mammals, and birds. It causes severe febrile illness in humans and was first recognized in 1957 associated with a high number of deaths among monkeys in Kyasanur Forest. Genetic analysis of 48 viruses isolated in India during 1957-2006 showed low diversity (1.2%). Bayesian coalescence analysis of these sequences and those of KFDVs from Saudi Arabia and the People's Republic of China estimated that KFDVs have evolved at a mean rate of approximately 6.4 x 10(-4) substitutions/site/year, which is similar to rates estimated for mosquito-borne flaviviruses. KFDVs were estimated to have shared a common ancestor in approximately 1942, fifteen years before identification of the disease in India. These data are consistent with the view that KFD represented a newly emerged disease when first recognized. Recent common ancestry of KFDVs from India and Saudi Arabia, despite their large geographic separation, indicates long-range movement of virus, possibly by birds.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus