Limits...
Reemergence of strongyloidiasis, northern Italy.

Abrescia FF, Falda A, Caramaschi G, Scalzini A, Gobbi F, Angheben A, Gobbo M, Schiavon R, Rovere P, Bisoffi Z - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2009)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Strongyloidiasis is a helminth infection caused by Strongyloides stercoralis, a nematode ubiquitous in tropical and subtropical countries and occasionally reported in temperate countries, including Italy... Sources of infection are filariform strongyloid larvae present in soil contaminated by infected feces; the larvae penetrate through the skin of a human host... After the first life cycle, a process of autoinfection begins, which persists indefinitely in the host if the infection is not effectively treated... More importantly, when host immunity is impaired because of a concurrent disease or immunosuppressive therapy (including corticosteroids, sometimes used to treat symptoms of the unrecognized infection or the concurrent eosinophilia), disseminated strongyloidiasis may occur, causing a massive and almost invariably fatal invasion of virtually all organs and tissues by filariform larvae and even adult worms (Figure), often combined with bacterial superinfection... Although strongyloidiasis can be suspected in the presence of symptoms or eosinophilia (which is frequent but not mandatory), the low sensitivity of direct diagnostic methods often lets the disease go unrecognized... By far the most sensitive diagnostic tools are serologic tests: sensitivity and specificity of indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (in-house produced IFAT) are 97.4% and 97.9%, respectively, at a dilution >1/20, and 70.5% and 99.8% at a dilution >1/80... A suspected case is defined by a positive antibody titer >20 (IFAT); a case is confirmed by a positive direct test result (culture in agar being the most sensitive direct technique) or by a positive antibody titer >80... Serum specimens were subjected to the IFAT for S. stercoralis at the Sacro Cuore Hospital Centre for Tropical Diseases... Unexpectedly, we found that 37 (28%) of 132 patients were positive, with titers ranging between 20 and >320 (and >80 in most cases)... However, caution should be exercised in interpreting the results because the patients may not be representative of the general population... Moreover, our results are based on an indirect (although highly sensitive and specific) test... The long persistence is the consequence of the autoinfection cycle typical of this parasite as described above... The result is an important and unrecognized public health problem affecting the geriatric population of northern Italy... These preliminary results confirm the need for the already planned, multicentered study involving a larger sample and a wider geographic area.

Show MeSH
Adult female of Strongyloides stercoralis collected in bronchial fluid of a patient with disseminated disease. Scale bar = 400 µm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2819861&req=5

Figure 1: Adult female of Strongyloides stercoralis collected in bronchial fluid of a patient with disseminated disease. Scale bar = 400 µm.

Mentions: To the Editor: Strongyloidiasis is a helminth infection caused by Strongyloides stercoralis, a nematode ubiquitous in tropical and subtropical countries and occasionally reported in temperate countries, including Italy (1). Sources of infection are filariform strongyloid larvae present in soil contaminated by infected feces; the larvae penetrate through the skin of a human host. After the first life cycle, a process of autoinfection begins, which persists indefinitely in the host if the infection is not effectively treated. The infection can remain totally asymptomatic for many years or forever or cause cutaneous (itching and rash), abdominal (epigastric pain, pseudoappendicitis, diarrhea), respiratory (cough, recurrent asthma), and systemic (weight loss, cachexia) symptoms that can be enervating. More importantly, when host immunity is impaired because of a concurrent disease or immunosuppressive therapy (including corticosteroids, sometimes used to treat symptoms of the unrecognized infection or the concurrent eosinophilia), disseminated strongyloidiasis may occur (2–4), causing a massive and almost invariably fatal invasion of virtually all organs and tissues by filariform larvae and even adult worms (Figure), often combined with bacterial superinfection. This complication is believed to be rare but is probably underestimated because of the extreme variability of the clinical presentation.


Reemergence of strongyloidiasis, northern Italy.

Abrescia FF, Falda A, Caramaschi G, Scalzini A, Gobbi F, Angheben A, Gobbo M, Schiavon R, Rovere P, Bisoffi Z - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2009)

Adult female of Strongyloides stercoralis collected in bronchial fluid of a patient with disseminated disease. Scale bar = 400 µm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2819861&req=5

Figure 1: Adult female of Strongyloides stercoralis collected in bronchial fluid of a patient with disseminated disease. Scale bar = 400 µm.
Mentions: To the Editor: Strongyloidiasis is a helminth infection caused by Strongyloides stercoralis, a nematode ubiquitous in tropical and subtropical countries and occasionally reported in temperate countries, including Italy (1). Sources of infection are filariform strongyloid larvae present in soil contaminated by infected feces; the larvae penetrate through the skin of a human host. After the first life cycle, a process of autoinfection begins, which persists indefinitely in the host if the infection is not effectively treated. The infection can remain totally asymptomatic for many years or forever or cause cutaneous (itching and rash), abdominal (epigastric pain, pseudoappendicitis, diarrhea), respiratory (cough, recurrent asthma), and systemic (weight loss, cachexia) symptoms that can be enervating. More importantly, when host immunity is impaired because of a concurrent disease or immunosuppressive therapy (including corticosteroids, sometimes used to treat symptoms of the unrecognized infection or the concurrent eosinophilia), disseminated strongyloidiasis may occur (2–4), causing a massive and almost invariably fatal invasion of virtually all organs and tissues by filariform larvae and even adult worms (Figure), often combined with bacterial superinfection. This complication is believed to be rare but is probably underestimated because of the extreme variability of the clinical presentation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Strongyloidiasis is a helminth infection caused by Strongyloides stercoralis, a nematode ubiquitous in tropical and subtropical countries and occasionally reported in temperate countries, including Italy... Sources of infection are filariform strongyloid larvae present in soil contaminated by infected feces; the larvae penetrate through the skin of a human host... After the first life cycle, a process of autoinfection begins, which persists indefinitely in the host if the infection is not effectively treated... More importantly, when host immunity is impaired because of a concurrent disease or immunosuppressive therapy (including corticosteroids, sometimes used to treat symptoms of the unrecognized infection or the concurrent eosinophilia), disseminated strongyloidiasis may occur, causing a massive and almost invariably fatal invasion of virtually all organs and tissues by filariform larvae and even adult worms (Figure), often combined with bacterial superinfection... Although strongyloidiasis can be suspected in the presence of symptoms or eosinophilia (which is frequent but not mandatory), the low sensitivity of direct diagnostic methods often lets the disease go unrecognized... By far the most sensitive diagnostic tools are serologic tests: sensitivity and specificity of indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (in-house produced IFAT) are 97.4% and 97.9%, respectively, at a dilution >1/20, and 70.5% and 99.8% at a dilution >1/80... A suspected case is defined by a positive antibody titer >20 (IFAT); a case is confirmed by a positive direct test result (culture in agar being the most sensitive direct technique) or by a positive antibody titer >80... Serum specimens were subjected to the IFAT for S. stercoralis at the Sacro Cuore Hospital Centre for Tropical Diseases... Unexpectedly, we found that 37 (28%) of 132 patients were positive, with titers ranging between 20 and >320 (and >80 in most cases)... However, caution should be exercised in interpreting the results because the patients may not be representative of the general population... Moreover, our results are based on an indirect (although highly sensitive and specific) test... The long persistence is the consequence of the autoinfection cycle typical of this parasite as described above... The result is an important and unrecognized public health problem affecting the geriatric population of northern Italy... These preliminary results confirm the need for the already planned, multicentered study involving a larger sample and a wider geographic area.

Show MeSH