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Genetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses, Ethiopia, 1981-2007.

Ayelet G, Mahapatra M, Gelaye E, Egziabher BG, Rufeal T, Sahle M, Ferris NP, Wadsworth J, Hutchings GH, Knowles NJ - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2009)

Bottom Line: We detected 5 of the 7 FMDV serotypes (O, A, C, Southern African Territories [SAT] 1, and SAT 2).Serotype O predominated, followed by serotype A; type C was not recognized after 1983.In 2007, serotype SAT 1 was detected in Ethiopia and formed a new distinct topotype (IX), and serotype SAT 2 reappeared after an apparent gap of 16 years.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Veterinary Institute, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.

ABSTRACT
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. To further understand its complex epidemiology, which involves multiple virus serotypes and host species, we characterized the viruses recovered from FMD outbreaks in Ethiopia during 1981-2007. We detected 5 of the 7 FMDV serotypes (O, A, C, Southern African Territories [SAT] 1, and SAT 2). Serotype O predominated, followed by serotype A; type C was not recognized after 1983. Phylogenetic analysis of virus protein 1 sequences indicated emergence of a new topotype within serotype O, East Africa 4. In 2007, serotype SAT 1 was detected in Ethiopia and formed a new distinct topotype (IX), and serotype SAT 2 reappeared after an apparent gap of 16 years. The diversity of viruses highlights the role of this region as a reservoir for FMD virus, and their continuing emergence in Ethiopia will greatly affect spread and consequent control strategy of the disease on this continent.

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Midpoint-rooted neighbor-joining tree (based on the complete virus protein [VP] 1 coding sequence) showing the relationships between the foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype C isolates from Ethiopia (boxed) and other contemporary and reference viruses. The year in parenthesis indicates the year of sample collection. Scale bar indicates substitutions per site. *Not a reference number assigned by the World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Pirbright, UK.
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Figure 3: Midpoint-rooted neighbor-joining tree (based on the complete virus protein [VP] 1 coding sequence) showing the relationships between the foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype C isolates from Ethiopia (boxed) and other contemporary and reference viruses. The year in parenthesis indicates the year of sample collection. Scale bar indicates substitutions per site. *Not a reference number assigned by the World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Pirbright, UK.

Mentions: VP1 nucleotide sequences were aligned by using BioEdit 7.0.5.3 (17) and Clustal W (18). These alignments were used to construct distance matrices by using the Kimura 2-parameter nucleotide substitution model in the program MEGA 4.0 (19). Some previously published sequences of serotype O were incomplete at the 5′ end of the VP1 gene and consisted of 495 nucleotides rather than the full-length 639 nucleotides. Midpoint-rooted neighbor-joining trees were then constructed with MEGA 4.0 software. The robustness of the tree topology was assessed with 1,000 bootstrap replicates by using the model in MEGA 4.0. The serotype C sequences labeled PD-FMD in Figure 3 were supplied by the Project Directorate on FMD, Mukteswar, India (20).


Genetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses, Ethiopia, 1981-2007.

Ayelet G, Mahapatra M, Gelaye E, Egziabher BG, Rufeal T, Sahle M, Ferris NP, Wadsworth J, Hutchings GH, Knowles NJ - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2009)

Midpoint-rooted neighbor-joining tree (based on the complete virus protein [VP] 1 coding sequence) showing the relationships between the foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype C isolates from Ethiopia (boxed) and other contemporary and reference viruses. The year in parenthesis indicates the year of sample collection. Scale bar indicates substitutions per site. *Not a reference number assigned by the World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Pirbright, UK.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2819860&req=5

Figure 3: Midpoint-rooted neighbor-joining tree (based on the complete virus protein [VP] 1 coding sequence) showing the relationships between the foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype C isolates from Ethiopia (boxed) and other contemporary and reference viruses. The year in parenthesis indicates the year of sample collection. Scale bar indicates substitutions per site. *Not a reference number assigned by the World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Pirbright, UK.
Mentions: VP1 nucleotide sequences were aligned by using BioEdit 7.0.5.3 (17) and Clustal W (18). These alignments were used to construct distance matrices by using the Kimura 2-parameter nucleotide substitution model in the program MEGA 4.0 (19). Some previously published sequences of serotype O were incomplete at the 5′ end of the VP1 gene and consisted of 495 nucleotides rather than the full-length 639 nucleotides. Midpoint-rooted neighbor-joining trees were then constructed with MEGA 4.0 software. The robustness of the tree topology was assessed with 1,000 bootstrap replicates by using the model in MEGA 4.0. The serotype C sequences labeled PD-FMD in Figure 3 were supplied by the Project Directorate on FMD, Mukteswar, India (20).

Bottom Line: We detected 5 of the 7 FMDV serotypes (O, A, C, Southern African Territories [SAT] 1, and SAT 2).Serotype O predominated, followed by serotype A; type C was not recognized after 1983.In 2007, serotype SAT 1 was detected in Ethiopia and formed a new distinct topotype (IX), and serotype SAT 2 reappeared after an apparent gap of 16 years.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Veterinary Institute, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.

ABSTRACT
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. To further understand its complex epidemiology, which involves multiple virus serotypes and host species, we characterized the viruses recovered from FMD outbreaks in Ethiopia during 1981-2007. We detected 5 of the 7 FMDV serotypes (O, A, C, Southern African Territories [SAT] 1, and SAT 2). Serotype O predominated, followed by serotype A; type C was not recognized after 1983. Phylogenetic analysis of virus protein 1 sequences indicated emergence of a new topotype within serotype O, East Africa 4. In 2007, serotype SAT 1 was detected in Ethiopia and formed a new distinct topotype (IX), and serotype SAT 2 reappeared after an apparent gap of 16 years. The diversity of viruses highlights the role of this region as a reservoir for FMD virus, and their continuing emergence in Ethiopia will greatly affect spread and consequent control strategy of the disease on this continent.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus