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Genetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses, Ethiopia, 1981-2007.

Ayelet G, Mahapatra M, Gelaye E, Egziabher BG, Rufeal T, Sahle M, Ferris NP, Wadsworth J, Hutchings GH, Knowles NJ - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2009)

Bottom Line: We detected 5 of the 7 FMDV serotypes (O, A, C, Southern African Territories [SAT] 1, and SAT 2).Serotype O predominated, followed by serotype A; type C was not recognized after 1983.In 2007, serotype SAT 1 was detected in Ethiopia and formed a new distinct topotype (IX), and serotype SAT 2 reappeared after an apparent gap of 16 years.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Veterinary Institute, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.

ABSTRACT
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. To further understand its complex epidemiology, which involves multiple virus serotypes and host species, we characterized the viruses recovered from FMD outbreaks in Ethiopia during 1981-2007. We detected 5 of the 7 FMDV serotypes (O, A, C, Southern African Territories [SAT] 1, and SAT 2). Serotype O predominated, followed by serotype A; type C was not recognized after 1983. Phylogenetic analysis of virus protein 1 sequences indicated emergence of a new topotype within serotype O, East Africa 4. In 2007, serotype SAT 1 was detected in Ethiopia and formed a new distinct topotype (IX), and serotype SAT 2 reappeared after an apparent gap of 16 years. The diversity of viruses highlights the role of this region as a reservoir for FMD virus, and their continuing emergence in Ethiopia will greatly affect spread and consequent control strategy of the disease on this continent.

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Midpoint-rooted neighbor-joining tree (based on the complete virus protein [VP] 1 coding sequence) showing the relationships between the foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O isolates from Ethiopia and other contemporary and reference viruses. The 3 isolates from 2005 forming a new topotype East African (EA)-4 are boxed. The year in parenthesis indicates the year of sample collection. Scale bar indicates substitutions per site. *Not a reference number assigned by the World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Pirbright, UK. †Partial (495-nt) VP1 sequence used.
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Figure 1: Midpoint-rooted neighbor-joining tree (based on the complete virus protein [VP] 1 coding sequence) showing the relationships between the foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O isolates from Ethiopia and other contemporary and reference viruses. The 3 isolates from 2005 forming a new topotype East African (EA)-4 are boxed. The year in parenthesis indicates the year of sample collection. Scale bar indicates substitutions per site. *Not a reference number assigned by the World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Pirbright, UK. †Partial (495-nt) VP1 sequence used.

Mentions: Of the FMDVs examined, serotype O predominated. All but 3 of the 55 FMDV serotype O Ethiopia isolates examined in our study fell into a single topotype, East Africa (EA)-3 (Figure 1). These 3 samples from 2005 were collected from cattle in the Mizan Teferi area (southwest of Addis Ababa) and formed a new serotype O topotype, which we named EA-4. Four viruses from Uganda in 1998 (≈91% nucleotide identity) also belonged to this topotype. The VP1 sequences of viruses within EA-4 differed by ≈14%–16% from members of the EA-1, EA-2, and EA-3 topotypes. Ethiopia type O viruses isolated during 2003–2007 fell into 6 lineages (A–F; Figure 1), which appeared to be cocirculating in different geographic regions (Figure 7, panel A; Technical Appendix Table 1).


Genetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses, Ethiopia, 1981-2007.

Ayelet G, Mahapatra M, Gelaye E, Egziabher BG, Rufeal T, Sahle M, Ferris NP, Wadsworth J, Hutchings GH, Knowles NJ - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2009)

Midpoint-rooted neighbor-joining tree (based on the complete virus protein [VP] 1 coding sequence) showing the relationships between the foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O isolates from Ethiopia and other contemporary and reference viruses. The 3 isolates from 2005 forming a new topotype East African (EA)-4 are boxed. The year in parenthesis indicates the year of sample collection. Scale bar indicates substitutions per site. *Not a reference number assigned by the World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Pirbright, UK. †Partial (495-nt) VP1 sequence used.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2819860&req=5

Figure 1: Midpoint-rooted neighbor-joining tree (based on the complete virus protein [VP] 1 coding sequence) showing the relationships between the foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O isolates from Ethiopia and other contemporary and reference viruses. The 3 isolates from 2005 forming a new topotype East African (EA)-4 are boxed. The year in parenthesis indicates the year of sample collection. Scale bar indicates substitutions per site. *Not a reference number assigned by the World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Pirbright, UK. †Partial (495-nt) VP1 sequence used.
Mentions: Of the FMDVs examined, serotype O predominated. All but 3 of the 55 FMDV serotype O Ethiopia isolates examined in our study fell into a single topotype, East Africa (EA)-3 (Figure 1). These 3 samples from 2005 were collected from cattle in the Mizan Teferi area (southwest of Addis Ababa) and formed a new serotype O topotype, which we named EA-4. Four viruses from Uganda in 1998 (≈91% nucleotide identity) also belonged to this topotype. The VP1 sequences of viruses within EA-4 differed by ≈14%–16% from members of the EA-1, EA-2, and EA-3 topotypes. Ethiopia type O viruses isolated during 2003–2007 fell into 6 lineages (A–F; Figure 1), which appeared to be cocirculating in different geographic regions (Figure 7, panel A; Technical Appendix Table 1).

Bottom Line: We detected 5 of the 7 FMDV serotypes (O, A, C, Southern African Territories [SAT] 1, and SAT 2).Serotype O predominated, followed by serotype A; type C was not recognized after 1983.In 2007, serotype SAT 1 was detected in Ethiopia and formed a new distinct topotype (IX), and serotype SAT 2 reappeared after an apparent gap of 16 years.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Veterinary Institute, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.

ABSTRACT
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. To further understand its complex epidemiology, which involves multiple virus serotypes and host species, we characterized the viruses recovered from FMD outbreaks in Ethiopia during 1981-2007. We detected 5 of the 7 FMDV serotypes (O, A, C, Southern African Territories [SAT] 1, and SAT 2). Serotype O predominated, followed by serotype A; type C was not recognized after 1983. Phylogenetic analysis of virus protein 1 sequences indicated emergence of a new topotype within serotype O, East Africa 4. In 2007, serotype SAT 1 was detected in Ethiopia and formed a new distinct topotype (IX), and serotype SAT 2 reappeared after an apparent gap of 16 years. The diversity of viruses highlights the role of this region as a reservoir for FMD virus, and their continuing emergence in Ethiopia will greatly affect spread and consequent control strategy of the disease on this continent.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus