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Reemergence of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, 2007-2008.

Aguilar PV, Camargo W, Vargas J, Guevara C, Roca Y, Felices V, Laguna-Torres VA, Tesh R, Ksiazek TG, Kochel TJ - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2009)

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Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF) was first described in 1959 during outbreaks affecting isolated human communities in eastern Bolivia... Because physicians suspected BHF, patients received supportive therapy, including intravenous hydration, corticoids, antipyretic drugs, antimicrobial drugs, and blood transfusions from donors who had survived Machupo virus infection... On first examination at the Hospital Santa Maria Magdalena, the patient had fever, tremor, gingivorrhagia, petechiae, bruises, asthenia, and anorexia and was admitted with a presumptive diagnosis of BHF... Despite supportive treatment (including administration of plasma from a BHF survivor), his condition worsened; hematemesis, melena, hematochezia, hematuria, anuria, respiratory alkalosis, and metabolic acidosis developed in the patient, eventually resulting in death... A fifth case was detected in a 46-year-old man from San Ramon, Mamore Province (13°17′0′′S, 64°43′0′′W)... The patient received hydration, corticoids, antipyretic therapy, and a plasma transfusion from a BHF survivor... The patient’s condition improved and he was subsequently discharged from the hospital ≈10 days after admission... Nineteen serum samples collected from suspected BHF patients, including the cases described above, were sent to Centro Nacional de Enfermedades Tropicales (Santa Cruz, Bolivia) and the US Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (Lima, Peru) for testing... Sequences generated were deposited in GenBank (accession nos... FJ696411, FJ696412, FJ696413, FJ696414, and FJ696415)... Machupo virus continues to cause sporadic cases and focal outbreaks of BHF in Bolivia... Although all the patients received plasma transfusion from patients who had survived BHF infection, 3 patients still died... An early diagnosis and the rapid administration of Machupo immune plasma before the hemorrhagic phase may increase the chance of survival, as has been observed with other arenavirus infections (6–).

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Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree of Machupo virus derived from the glycoprotein precursor gene sequence. The neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood analyses yielded similar phylogenetic trees. Boldface indicates 2007–2008 isolates. Numbers indicate bootstrap values for 1,000 replicates. Scale bar indicates nucleotide substitutions per site.
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Figure 1: Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree of Machupo virus derived from the glycoprotein precursor gene sequence. The neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood analyses yielded similar phylogenetic trees. Boldface indicates 2007–2008 isolates. Numbers indicate bootstrap values for 1,000 replicates. Scale bar indicates nucleotide substitutions per site.

Mentions: Viral RNA was extracted from the cell culture supernatant and the small (S) segment (≈3,200 bp) was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood program implemented in PAUP 4.0 software (Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA, USA). Sequence analyses confirmed the isolates as Machupo virus (Figure). Eight major Machupo phylogenetic lineages were described based on partial sequence of the nucleocapsid protein gene (2). We observed a similar tree topology based on the glycoprotein gene sequences (Figure). Two distinct lineages were distinguished among the isolates from the Itenez and Mamore provinces: V and VII and I and II, respectively. The recent isolates (2007–2008) from Magdalena and Huacaraje (Itenez Province) grouped within lineage V whereas the 2008 isolate from San Ramon (Mamore Province) belonged to lineage II. These isolates showed 10% nucleotide difference within the S segment and a 6% amino acid difference within the glycoprotein precursor gene. Similar genetic diversity has been described with Machupo virus and other arenaviruses (2–4). Sequences generated were deposited in GenBank (accession nos. FJ696411, FJ696412, FJ696413, FJ696414, and FJ696415).


Reemergence of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, 2007-2008.

Aguilar PV, Camargo W, Vargas J, Guevara C, Roca Y, Felices V, Laguna-Torres VA, Tesh R, Ksiazek TG, Kochel TJ - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2009)

Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree of Machupo virus derived from the glycoprotein precursor gene sequence. The neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood analyses yielded similar phylogenetic trees. Boldface indicates 2007–2008 isolates. Numbers indicate bootstrap values for 1,000 replicates. Scale bar indicates nucleotide substitutions per site.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2819859&req=5

Figure 1: Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree of Machupo virus derived from the glycoprotein precursor gene sequence. The neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood analyses yielded similar phylogenetic trees. Boldface indicates 2007–2008 isolates. Numbers indicate bootstrap values for 1,000 replicates. Scale bar indicates nucleotide substitutions per site.
Mentions: Viral RNA was extracted from the cell culture supernatant and the small (S) segment (≈3,200 bp) was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood program implemented in PAUP 4.0 software (Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA, USA). Sequence analyses confirmed the isolates as Machupo virus (Figure). Eight major Machupo phylogenetic lineages were described based on partial sequence of the nucleocapsid protein gene (2). We observed a similar tree topology based on the glycoprotein gene sequences (Figure). Two distinct lineages were distinguished among the isolates from the Itenez and Mamore provinces: V and VII and I and II, respectively. The recent isolates (2007–2008) from Magdalena and Huacaraje (Itenez Province) grouped within lineage V whereas the 2008 isolate from San Ramon (Mamore Province) belonged to lineage II. These isolates showed 10% nucleotide difference within the S segment and a 6% amino acid difference within the glycoprotein precursor gene. Similar genetic diversity has been described with Machupo virus and other arenaviruses (2–4). Sequences generated were deposited in GenBank (accession nos. FJ696411, FJ696412, FJ696413, FJ696414, and FJ696415).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF) was first described in 1959 during outbreaks affecting isolated human communities in eastern Bolivia... Because physicians suspected BHF, patients received supportive therapy, including intravenous hydration, corticoids, antipyretic drugs, antimicrobial drugs, and blood transfusions from donors who had survived Machupo virus infection... On first examination at the Hospital Santa Maria Magdalena, the patient had fever, tremor, gingivorrhagia, petechiae, bruises, asthenia, and anorexia and was admitted with a presumptive diagnosis of BHF... Despite supportive treatment (including administration of plasma from a BHF survivor), his condition worsened; hematemesis, melena, hematochezia, hematuria, anuria, respiratory alkalosis, and metabolic acidosis developed in the patient, eventually resulting in death... A fifth case was detected in a 46-year-old man from San Ramon, Mamore Province (13°17′0′′S, 64°43′0′′W)... The patient received hydration, corticoids, antipyretic therapy, and a plasma transfusion from a BHF survivor... The patient’s condition improved and he was subsequently discharged from the hospital ≈10 days after admission... Nineteen serum samples collected from suspected BHF patients, including the cases described above, were sent to Centro Nacional de Enfermedades Tropicales (Santa Cruz, Bolivia) and the US Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (Lima, Peru) for testing... Sequences generated were deposited in GenBank (accession nos... FJ696411, FJ696412, FJ696413, FJ696414, and FJ696415)... Machupo virus continues to cause sporadic cases and focal outbreaks of BHF in Bolivia... Although all the patients received plasma transfusion from patients who had survived BHF infection, 3 patients still died... An early diagnosis and the rapid administration of Machupo immune plasma before the hemorrhagic phase may increase the chance of survival, as has been observed with other arenavirus infections (6–).

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus