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Challenging the "inoffensiveness" of regular cannabis use by its associations with other current risky substance use--a census of 20-year-old Swiss men.

Gmel G, Gaume J, Willi C, Michaud PA, Cornuz J, Daeppen JB - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2010)

Bottom Line: Risky cannabis use was defined as at least twice weekly; risky alcohol use as 6+ drinks more than once/monthly, or more than 20 drinks per week; and risky tobacco use as daily smoking.Ninety-five percent of all risky cannabis users reported other risky use.They began using cannabis earlier than did non-risky users, but age of onset was unrelated to other risky substance use.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Alcohol Treatment Centre, Lausanne University Hospital CHUV, Mont-Paisible 16, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. Gerhard.Gmel@chuv.ch

ABSTRACT
3,537 men enrolling in 2007 for mandatory army recruitment procedures were assessed for the co-occurrence of risky licit substance use among risky cannabis users. Risky cannabis use was defined as at least twice weekly; risky alcohol use as 6+ drinks more than once/monthly, or more than 20 drinks per week; and risky tobacco use as daily smoking. Ninety-five percent of all risky cannabis users reported other risky use. They began using cannabis earlier than did non-risky users, but age of onset was unrelated to other risky substance use. A pressing public health issue among cannabis users stems from risky licit substance use warranting preventive efforts within this age group.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Interplay of risky substance use, odds ratios* for alternating dependent and independent variables.Odds ratios from logistic regressions, 95% confidence intervals in parenthesis; all coefficients were significant at p <0.001 except for the constant of model b) with p = 0.016: Model a) risky cannabis use: 13.62 (8.83–21.01), risky alcohol use: 2.52 (2.13–2.99), interaction: 0.43 (0.26–0.71), constant: 0.23 (0.20–0.26). Model b): risky cannabis use: 4.11 (2.72–6.21), risky tobacco use: 2.52 (2.13–2.99), interaction: 0.43 (0.26–0.71), constant: 0.90 (0.83–0.98). Model c) risky tobacco use: 13.62 (8.83–21.01), risky alcohol use: 4.11 (2.72–6.21), interaction: 0.43 (0.26–0.71), constant: 0.03 (0.02–0.04).
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f1-ijerph-07-00046: Interplay of risky substance use, odds ratios* for alternating dependent and independent variables.Odds ratios from logistic regressions, 95% confidence intervals in parenthesis; all coefficients were significant at p <0.001 except for the constant of model b) with p = 0.016: Model a) risky cannabis use: 13.62 (8.83–21.01), risky alcohol use: 2.52 (2.13–2.99), interaction: 0.43 (0.26–0.71), constant: 0.23 (0.20–0.26). Model b): risky cannabis use: 4.11 (2.72–6.21), risky tobacco use: 2.52 (2.13–2.99), interaction: 0.43 (0.26–0.71), constant: 0.90 (0.83–0.98). Model c) risky tobacco use: 13.62 (8.83–21.01), risky alcohol use: 4.11 (2.72–6.21), interaction: 0.43 (0.26–0.71), constant: 0.03 (0.02–0.04).

Mentions: Odds ratios for alternating risky substance use variables as dependent or independent variables (including the interactions of the independent variables) were calculated and graphically presented in Figure 1 in order to make the interactions easier to interpret. Risky cannabis use showed an important association with risky tobacco use (and vice versa), whereas risky alcohol use added relatively little to the cannabis effect. For example, among non-risky alcohol users the odds ratios for risky tobacco use (daily smoking) increased from 1 to more than 13 with risky cannabis use. The odds ratios for risky alcohol use increased the odds ratios additionally by less than 2 (see panel a) in Figure 1). Risky cannabis use was more strongly associated with risky alcohol use (e.g., an increase in odds ratios from 1 to 4.11 for risky alcohol use when there was risky cannabis use but no risky tobacco use, see panel b) in figure 1) than with risky tobacco use. The combination of both added relatively little to the effect of risky cannabis use alone (risky tobacco use increased the odds ratios from 4.11 to 4.49 for risky alcohol use among risky cannabis users, see panel b) in Figure 1). Both risky tobacco use (odds ratio = 13.62 among non-risky alcohol users, see panel c) in Figure 1), and risky alcohol use in combination with risky tobacco use (odds ratio = 24.26, see panel c) in Figure 1), increased the odds for risky cannabis use.


Challenging the "inoffensiveness" of regular cannabis use by its associations with other current risky substance use--a census of 20-year-old Swiss men.

Gmel G, Gaume J, Willi C, Michaud PA, Cornuz J, Daeppen JB - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2010)

Interplay of risky substance use, odds ratios* for alternating dependent and independent variables.Odds ratios from logistic regressions, 95% confidence intervals in parenthesis; all coefficients were significant at p <0.001 except for the constant of model b) with p = 0.016: Model a) risky cannabis use: 13.62 (8.83–21.01), risky alcohol use: 2.52 (2.13–2.99), interaction: 0.43 (0.26–0.71), constant: 0.23 (0.20–0.26). Model b): risky cannabis use: 4.11 (2.72–6.21), risky tobacco use: 2.52 (2.13–2.99), interaction: 0.43 (0.26–0.71), constant: 0.90 (0.83–0.98). Model c) risky tobacco use: 13.62 (8.83–21.01), risky alcohol use: 4.11 (2.72–6.21), interaction: 0.43 (0.26–0.71), constant: 0.03 (0.02–0.04).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2819775&req=5

f1-ijerph-07-00046: Interplay of risky substance use, odds ratios* for alternating dependent and independent variables.Odds ratios from logistic regressions, 95% confidence intervals in parenthesis; all coefficients were significant at p <0.001 except for the constant of model b) with p = 0.016: Model a) risky cannabis use: 13.62 (8.83–21.01), risky alcohol use: 2.52 (2.13–2.99), interaction: 0.43 (0.26–0.71), constant: 0.23 (0.20–0.26). Model b): risky cannabis use: 4.11 (2.72–6.21), risky tobacco use: 2.52 (2.13–2.99), interaction: 0.43 (0.26–0.71), constant: 0.90 (0.83–0.98). Model c) risky tobacco use: 13.62 (8.83–21.01), risky alcohol use: 4.11 (2.72–6.21), interaction: 0.43 (0.26–0.71), constant: 0.03 (0.02–0.04).
Mentions: Odds ratios for alternating risky substance use variables as dependent or independent variables (including the interactions of the independent variables) were calculated and graphically presented in Figure 1 in order to make the interactions easier to interpret. Risky cannabis use showed an important association with risky tobacco use (and vice versa), whereas risky alcohol use added relatively little to the cannabis effect. For example, among non-risky alcohol users the odds ratios for risky tobacco use (daily smoking) increased from 1 to more than 13 with risky cannabis use. The odds ratios for risky alcohol use increased the odds ratios additionally by less than 2 (see panel a) in Figure 1). Risky cannabis use was more strongly associated with risky alcohol use (e.g., an increase in odds ratios from 1 to 4.11 for risky alcohol use when there was risky cannabis use but no risky tobacco use, see panel b) in figure 1) than with risky tobacco use. The combination of both added relatively little to the effect of risky cannabis use alone (risky tobacco use increased the odds ratios from 4.11 to 4.49 for risky alcohol use among risky cannabis users, see panel b) in Figure 1). Both risky tobacco use (odds ratio = 13.62 among non-risky alcohol users, see panel c) in Figure 1), and risky alcohol use in combination with risky tobacco use (odds ratio = 24.26, see panel c) in Figure 1), increased the odds for risky cannabis use.

Bottom Line: Risky cannabis use was defined as at least twice weekly; risky alcohol use as 6+ drinks more than once/monthly, or more than 20 drinks per week; and risky tobacco use as daily smoking.Ninety-five percent of all risky cannabis users reported other risky use.They began using cannabis earlier than did non-risky users, but age of onset was unrelated to other risky substance use.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Alcohol Treatment Centre, Lausanne University Hospital CHUV, Mont-Paisible 16, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. Gerhard.Gmel@chuv.ch

ABSTRACT
3,537 men enrolling in 2007 for mandatory army recruitment procedures were assessed for the co-occurrence of risky licit substance use among risky cannabis users. Risky cannabis use was defined as at least twice weekly; risky alcohol use as 6+ drinks more than once/monthly, or more than 20 drinks per week; and risky tobacco use as daily smoking. Ninety-five percent of all risky cannabis users reported other risky use. They began using cannabis earlier than did non-risky users, but age of onset was unrelated to other risky substance use. A pressing public health issue among cannabis users stems from risky licit substance use warranting preventive efforts within this age group.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus