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Canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy: current situation and perspectives.

Otranto D, Dantas-Torres F - Parasit Vectors (2010)

Bottom Line: Recent studies have highlighted the potential of fleas as vectors of pathogens of zoonotic relevance (e.g., Rickettsia felis) in this country.While some arthropod vectors (e.g., ticks and fleas) are present in certain Italian regions throughout the year, others (e.g., phlebotomine sand flies) are most active during the summer season.Accordingly, control strategies, such as those relying on the systematic use of acaricides and insecticides, should be planned on the basis of the ecology of both vectors and pathogens in different geographical areas in order to improve their effectiveness in reducing the risk of infection by vector-borne pathogens.

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Affiliation: Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica e Zootecnia, Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Bari, 70010 Valenzano, Bari, Italy.

ABSTRACT
In Italy, dogs and cats are at risk of becoming infected by different vector-borne pathogens, including protozoa, bacteria, and helminths. Ticks, fleas, phlebotomine sand flies, and mosquitoes are recognized vectors of pathogens affecting cats and dogs, some of which (e.g., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dipylidium caninum, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens) are of zoonotic concern. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of fleas as vectors of pathogens of zoonotic relevance (e.g., Rickettsia felis) in this country. While some arthropod vectors (e.g., ticks and fleas) are present in certain Italian regions throughout the year, others (e.g., phlebotomine sand flies) are most active during the summer season. Accordingly, control strategies, such as those relying on the systematic use of acaricides and insecticides, should be planned on the basis of the ecology of both vectors and pathogens in different geographical areas in order to improve their effectiveness in reducing the risk of infection by vector-borne pathogens. This article reviews the current situation and perspectives of canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Several females attached to the ear of a dog from southern Italy.
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Figure 4: Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Several females attached to the ear of a dog from southern Italy.

Mentions: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (the brown dog tick) is among the most important arthropod vectors involved in the transmission of pathogens affecting dogs worldwide [10]. In Italy, R.sanguineus (Figure 4) is the most common tick species infesting dogs [11-14]. It is the major vector of B.vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis, and Rickettsia conorii and it is a putative vector of many other pathogens including B.canis, Babesia microti-like piroplasm (Spanish isolate), Anaplasma platys [14,15], and Anaplasma phagocytophilum [16]. Following the recent retrieval of Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii genotypes II and III in dogs from southern Italy, a potentially new strain or species of Bartonella was detected in salivary glands of R.sanguineus ticks and in a dog [17]. Some of these pathogens (e.g., E.canis) are passed to the subsequent tick developmental stage (i.e., from larvae to nymphs and from nymphs to adults) transstadially [18]. Additionally, certain pathogens, such as R. conorii, might be maintained over several tick generations by transovarial transmission [19]. In this case, not only nymphs and adults but also larvae might play a role in transmitting the infection.


Canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy: current situation and perspectives.

Otranto D, Dantas-Torres F - Parasit Vectors (2010)

Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Several females attached to the ear of a dog from southern Italy.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2818618&req=5

Figure 4: Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Several females attached to the ear of a dog from southern Italy.
Mentions: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (the brown dog tick) is among the most important arthropod vectors involved in the transmission of pathogens affecting dogs worldwide [10]. In Italy, R.sanguineus (Figure 4) is the most common tick species infesting dogs [11-14]. It is the major vector of B.vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis, and Rickettsia conorii and it is a putative vector of many other pathogens including B.canis, Babesia microti-like piroplasm (Spanish isolate), Anaplasma platys [14,15], and Anaplasma phagocytophilum [16]. Following the recent retrieval of Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii genotypes II and III in dogs from southern Italy, a potentially new strain or species of Bartonella was detected in salivary glands of R.sanguineus ticks and in a dog [17]. Some of these pathogens (e.g., E.canis) are passed to the subsequent tick developmental stage (i.e., from larvae to nymphs and from nymphs to adults) transstadially [18]. Additionally, certain pathogens, such as R. conorii, might be maintained over several tick generations by transovarial transmission [19]. In this case, not only nymphs and adults but also larvae might play a role in transmitting the infection.

Bottom Line: Recent studies have highlighted the potential of fleas as vectors of pathogens of zoonotic relevance (e.g., Rickettsia felis) in this country.While some arthropod vectors (e.g., ticks and fleas) are present in certain Italian regions throughout the year, others (e.g., phlebotomine sand flies) are most active during the summer season.Accordingly, control strategies, such as those relying on the systematic use of acaricides and insecticides, should be planned on the basis of the ecology of both vectors and pathogens in different geographical areas in order to improve their effectiveness in reducing the risk of infection by vector-borne pathogens.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica e Zootecnia, Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Bari, 70010 Valenzano, Bari, Italy.

ABSTRACT
In Italy, dogs and cats are at risk of becoming infected by different vector-borne pathogens, including protozoa, bacteria, and helminths. Ticks, fleas, phlebotomine sand flies, and mosquitoes are recognized vectors of pathogens affecting cats and dogs, some of which (e.g., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dipylidium caninum, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens) are of zoonotic concern. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of fleas as vectors of pathogens of zoonotic relevance (e.g., Rickettsia felis) in this country. While some arthropod vectors (e.g., ticks and fleas) are present in certain Italian regions throughout the year, others (e.g., phlebotomine sand flies) are most active during the summer season. Accordingly, control strategies, such as those relying on the systematic use of acaricides and insecticides, should be planned on the basis of the ecology of both vectors and pathogens in different geographical areas in order to improve their effectiveness in reducing the risk of infection by vector-borne pathogens. This article reviews the current situation and perspectives of canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus