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The Locust Standard Brain: A 3D Standard of the Central Complex as a Platform for Neural Network Analysis.

El Jundi B, Heinze S, Lenschow C, Kurylas A, Rohlfing T, Homberg U - Front Syst Neurosci (2010)

Bottom Line: To explore the usefulness of this atlas, two central-complex neurons, a polarization-sensitive columnar neuron (type CPU1a) and a tangential neuron that is activated during flight, the giant fan-shaped (GFS) neuron, were reconstructed 3D from brain sections.To examine whether the GFS neuron is a candidate to contribute to synaptic input to the CPU1a neuron, we registered both neurons into the standardized central complex.Visualization of both neurons revealed a potential connection of the CPU1a and GFS neurons in layer II of the upper division of the central body.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Fachbereich Biologie, Tierphysiologie, Philipps-Universität Marburg Marburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Many insects use the pattern of polarized light in the sky for spatial orientation and navigation. We have investigated the polarization vision system in the desert locust. To create a common platform for anatomical studies on polarization vision pathways, Kurylas et al. (2008) have generated a three-dimensional (3D) standard brain from confocal microscopy image stacks of 10 male brains, using two different standardization methods, the Iterative Shape Averaging (ISA) procedure and the Virtual Insect Brain (VIB) protocol. Comparison of both standardization methods showed that the VIB standard is ideal for comparative volume analysis of neuropils, whereas the ISA standard is the method of choice to analyze the morphology and connectivity of neurons. The central complex is a key processing stage for polarization information in the locust brain. To investigate neuronal connections between diverse central-complex neurons, we generated a higher-resolution standard atlas of the central complex and surrounding areas, using the ISA method based on brain sections from 20 individual central complexes. To explore the usefulness of this atlas, two central-complex neurons, a polarization-sensitive columnar neuron (type CPU1a) and a tangential neuron that is activated during flight, the giant fan-shaped (GFS) neuron, were reconstructed 3D from brain sections. To examine whether the GFS neuron is a candidate to contribute to synaptic input to the CPU1a neuron, we registered both neurons into the standardized central complex. Visualization of both neurons revealed a potential connection of the CPU1a and GFS neurons in layer II of the upper division of the central body.

No MeSH data available.


Registration of the CPU1a (red) and GFS (blue) neurons into the 3D standard central complex. (A) Anterior view (top left), posterior view (top right), dorsal view (bottom left) and lateral view (bottom right). (B) Anterior view showing arborizations in the upper division of the central body (CBU) and in the protocerebral bridge (PB). (C) Posterior view of the standardized right lateral accessory lobe with processes of the CPU1a and GFS neurons. (D) Ventrolateral view of the lateral accessory lobe. I, II, III, layers I–III of the upper division of the central body; aL, anterior lip; CBL, lower division of the central body; DS, dorsal shell; LAL, lateral accessory lobe; LT, lateral triangle; MO, median olive; VS, ventral shell. Scale bars: (A) 100 μm; (B–D) 50 μm.
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Figure 7: Registration of the CPU1a (red) and GFS (blue) neurons into the 3D standard central complex. (A) Anterior view (top left), posterior view (top right), dorsal view (bottom left) and lateral view (bottom right). (B) Anterior view showing arborizations in the upper division of the central body (CBU) and in the protocerebral bridge (PB). (C) Posterior view of the standardized right lateral accessory lobe with processes of the CPU1a and GFS neurons. (D) Ventrolateral view of the lateral accessory lobe. I, II, III, layers I–III of the upper division of the central body; aL, anterior lip; CBL, lower division of the central body; DS, dorsal shell; LAL, lateral accessory lobe; LT, lateral triangle; MO, median olive; VS, ventral shell. Scale bars: (A) 100 μm; (B–D) 50 μm.

Mentions: The GFS neuron (Williams, 1972; Homberg, 1994) is a tangential neuron of the central body. Tangential neurons connect various brain regions to the PB or to particular layers of the CB. The soma of the GFS neuron lies posterior to the LAL in the ventro-median protocerebrum (Figure 6A). The main neurite runs dorsally through the ventro-median protocerebrum and enters the ipsilateral LAL through the posterior surface of the VS. In the LAL the GFS neuron has smooth ramifications, especially in the dorsal shell and less prominently in the VS (Figure 6C), but not in the LT and MO. Additional dendritic processes extend around the medial lobe of the mushroom body toward anterior regions of the brain and arborize with fine terminals in the ipsilateral anteromedian protocerebrum (Figures 6D and 7A). Finally, a few dendritic processes extend to lateral aspects of the anterior lip (Figure 7A). The main neurite runs through the LAL dorsally from the isthmus tract toward the CB. Laterally from the CBL, it bends posteriorly and enters the posterior groove. Here the main neurite gives rise to eight major side branches. They enter eight pairs of columns of the CBU and ramify into highly varicose fiber processes, concentrated in layer II (Figure 6B). The 3D reconstructions of the GFS neuron before (blue) and after registration (grey) are shown in Figure 6E.


The Locust Standard Brain: A 3D Standard of the Central Complex as a Platform for Neural Network Analysis.

El Jundi B, Heinze S, Lenschow C, Kurylas A, Rohlfing T, Homberg U - Front Syst Neurosci (2010)

Registration of the CPU1a (red) and GFS (blue) neurons into the 3D standard central complex. (A) Anterior view (top left), posterior view (top right), dorsal view (bottom left) and lateral view (bottom right). (B) Anterior view showing arborizations in the upper division of the central body (CBU) and in the protocerebral bridge (PB). (C) Posterior view of the standardized right lateral accessory lobe with processes of the CPU1a and GFS neurons. (D) Ventrolateral view of the lateral accessory lobe. I, II, III, layers I–III of the upper division of the central body; aL, anterior lip; CBL, lower division of the central body; DS, dorsal shell; LAL, lateral accessory lobe; LT, lateral triangle; MO, median olive; VS, ventral shell. Scale bars: (A) 100 μm; (B–D) 50 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2818101&req=5

Figure 7: Registration of the CPU1a (red) and GFS (blue) neurons into the 3D standard central complex. (A) Anterior view (top left), posterior view (top right), dorsal view (bottom left) and lateral view (bottom right). (B) Anterior view showing arborizations in the upper division of the central body (CBU) and in the protocerebral bridge (PB). (C) Posterior view of the standardized right lateral accessory lobe with processes of the CPU1a and GFS neurons. (D) Ventrolateral view of the lateral accessory lobe. I, II, III, layers I–III of the upper division of the central body; aL, anterior lip; CBL, lower division of the central body; DS, dorsal shell; LAL, lateral accessory lobe; LT, lateral triangle; MO, median olive; VS, ventral shell. Scale bars: (A) 100 μm; (B–D) 50 μm.
Mentions: The GFS neuron (Williams, 1972; Homberg, 1994) is a tangential neuron of the central body. Tangential neurons connect various brain regions to the PB or to particular layers of the CB. The soma of the GFS neuron lies posterior to the LAL in the ventro-median protocerebrum (Figure 6A). The main neurite runs dorsally through the ventro-median protocerebrum and enters the ipsilateral LAL through the posterior surface of the VS. In the LAL the GFS neuron has smooth ramifications, especially in the dorsal shell and less prominently in the VS (Figure 6C), but not in the LT and MO. Additional dendritic processes extend around the medial lobe of the mushroom body toward anterior regions of the brain and arborize with fine terminals in the ipsilateral anteromedian protocerebrum (Figures 6D and 7A). Finally, a few dendritic processes extend to lateral aspects of the anterior lip (Figure 7A). The main neurite runs through the LAL dorsally from the isthmus tract toward the CB. Laterally from the CBL, it bends posteriorly and enters the posterior groove. Here the main neurite gives rise to eight major side branches. They enter eight pairs of columns of the CBU and ramify into highly varicose fiber processes, concentrated in layer II (Figure 6B). The 3D reconstructions of the GFS neuron before (blue) and after registration (grey) are shown in Figure 6E.

Bottom Line: To explore the usefulness of this atlas, two central-complex neurons, a polarization-sensitive columnar neuron (type CPU1a) and a tangential neuron that is activated during flight, the giant fan-shaped (GFS) neuron, were reconstructed 3D from brain sections.To examine whether the GFS neuron is a candidate to contribute to synaptic input to the CPU1a neuron, we registered both neurons into the standardized central complex.Visualization of both neurons revealed a potential connection of the CPU1a and GFS neurons in layer II of the upper division of the central body.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Fachbereich Biologie, Tierphysiologie, Philipps-Universität Marburg Marburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Many insects use the pattern of polarized light in the sky for spatial orientation and navigation. We have investigated the polarization vision system in the desert locust. To create a common platform for anatomical studies on polarization vision pathways, Kurylas et al. (2008) have generated a three-dimensional (3D) standard brain from confocal microscopy image stacks of 10 male brains, using two different standardization methods, the Iterative Shape Averaging (ISA) procedure and the Virtual Insect Brain (VIB) protocol. Comparison of both standardization methods showed that the VIB standard is ideal for comparative volume analysis of neuropils, whereas the ISA standard is the method of choice to analyze the morphology and connectivity of neurons. The central complex is a key processing stage for polarization information in the locust brain. To investigate neuronal connections between diverse central-complex neurons, we generated a higher-resolution standard atlas of the central complex and surrounding areas, using the ISA method based on brain sections from 20 individual central complexes. To explore the usefulness of this atlas, two central-complex neurons, a polarization-sensitive columnar neuron (type CPU1a) and a tangential neuron that is activated during flight, the giant fan-shaped (GFS) neuron, were reconstructed 3D from brain sections. To examine whether the GFS neuron is a candidate to contribute to synaptic input to the CPU1a neuron, we registered both neurons into the standardized central complex. Visualization of both neurons revealed a potential connection of the CPU1a and GFS neurons in layer II of the upper division of the central body.

No MeSH data available.