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The Locust Standard Brain: A 3D Standard of the Central Complex as a Platform for Neural Network Analysis.

El Jundi B, Heinze S, Lenschow C, Kurylas A, Rohlfing T, Homberg U - Front Syst Neurosci (2010)

Bottom Line: To explore the usefulness of this atlas, two central-complex neurons, a polarization-sensitive columnar neuron (type CPU1a) and a tangential neuron that is activated during flight, the giant fan-shaped (GFS) neuron, were reconstructed 3D from brain sections.To examine whether the GFS neuron is a candidate to contribute to synaptic input to the CPU1a neuron, we registered both neurons into the standardized central complex.Visualization of both neurons revealed a potential connection of the CPU1a and GFS neurons in layer II of the upper division of the central body.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Fachbereich Biologie, Tierphysiologie, Philipps-Universität Marburg Marburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Many insects use the pattern of polarized light in the sky for spatial orientation and navigation. We have investigated the polarization vision system in the desert locust. To create a common platform for anatomical studies on polarization vision pathways, Kurylas et al. (2008) have generated a three-dimensional (3D) standard brain from confocal microscopy image stacks of 10 male brains, using two different standardization methods, the Iterative Shape Averaging (ISA) procedure and the Virtual Insect Brain (VIB) protocol. Comparison of both standardization methods showed that the VIB standard is ideal for comparative volume analysis of neuropils, whereas the ISA standard is the method of choice to analyze the morphology and connectivity of neurons. The central complex is a key processing stage for polarization information in the locust brain. To investigate neuronal connections between diverse central-complex neurons, we generated a higher-resolution standard atlas of the central complex and surrounding areas, using the ISA method based on brain sections from 20 individual central complexes. To explore the usefulness of this atlas, two central-complex neurons, a polarization-sensitive columnar neuron (type CPU1a) and a tangential neuron that is activated during flight, the giant fan-shaped (GFS) neuron, were reconstructed 3D from brain sections. To examine whether the GFS neuron is a candidate to contribute to synaptic input to the CPU1a neuron, we registered both neurons into the standardized central complex. Visualization of both neurons revealed a potential connection of the CPU1a and GFS neurons in layer II of the upper division of the central body.

No MeSH data available.


Comparison of volumes and sizes of central-complex subdivisions between the 10-animal standard whole brain (black bars; from Kurylas et al., 2008) and the 20-animal standard central complex (white bars, this work). (A) Comparison of the means and ISA neuropil volumes (bars: standard error; ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; ns, not significant). (B) Comparison of neuropil sizes in the ISA standard brain and in the ISA standard central complex. CBL, lower division of the central body; CBU, upper division of the central body; No, noduli; PB, protocerebral bridge; x, y, z neuropil sizes in x, y, and z directions.
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Figure 4: Comparison of volumes and sizes of central-complex subdivisions between the 10-animal standard whole brain (black bars; from Kurylas et al., 2008) and the 20-animal standard central complex (white bars, this work). (A) Comparison of the means and ISA neuropil volumes (bars: standard error; ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; ns, not significant). (B) Comparison of neuropil sizes in the ISA standard brain and in the ISA standard central complex. CBL, lower division of the central body; CBU, upper division of the central body; No, noduli; PB, protocerebral bridge; x, y, z neuropil sizes in x, y, and z directions.

Mentions: Comparison of volumes and sizes of central-complex subdivisions between the standard brain and the standardized central complex revealed significantly smaller mean neuropil volumes of the PB and CBL (student t-test; two tailed; Figure 4A) in the sections than in the whole-mount brains. The CBU (p = 0.062) and the No (p = 0.551) were not significantly smaller. These differences in mean volumes probably resulted from larger tissue shrinkage of the brain sections and perhaps from differences in image resolution between the whole-mounts and the brain sections. Although the mean sizes of the PB and CBL were significantly different, the corresponding sizes in the ISA whole brain atlas do not reflect this (Figure 4A). Similarly, the sizes of the neuropils between the standard central complex and the central-complex neuropils in the whole-brain ISA standard do not exhibit the same differences (Figure 4B).


The Locust Standard Brain: A 3D Standard of the Central Complex as a Platform for Neural Network Analysis.

El Jundi B, Heinze S, Lenschow C, Kurylas A, Rohlfing T, Homberg U - Front Syst Neurosci (2010)

Comparison of volumes and sizes of central-complex subdivisions between the 10-animal standard whole brain (black bars; from Kurylas et al., 2008) and the 20-animal standard central complex (white bars, this work). (A) Comparison of the means and ISA neuropil volumes (bars: standard error; ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; ns, not significant). (B) Comparison of neuropil sizes in the ISA standard brain and in the ISA standard central complex. CBL, lower division of the central body; CBU, upper division of the central body; No, noduli; PB, protocerebral bridge; x, y, z neuropil sizes in x, y, and z directions.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 4: Comparison of volumes and sizes of central-complex subdivisions between the 10-animal standard whole brain (black bars; from Kurylas et al., 2008) and the 20-animal standard central complex (white bars, this work). (A) Comparison of the means and ISA neuropil volumes (bars: standard error; ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; ns, not significant). (B) Comparison of neuropil sizes in the ISA standard brain and in the ISA standard central complex. CBL, lower division of the central body; CBU, upper division of the central body; No, noduli; PB, protocerebral bridge; x, y, z neuropil sizes in x, y, and z directions.
Mentions: Comparison of volumes and sizes of central-complex subdivisions between the standard brain and the standardized central complex revealed significantly smaller mean neuropil volumes of the PB and CBL (student t-test; two tailed; Figure 4A) in the sections than in the whole-mount brains. The CBU (p = 0.062) and the No (p = 0.551) were not significantly smaller. These differences in mean volumes probably resulted from larger tissue shrinkage of the brain sections and perhaps from differences in image resolution between the whole-mounts and the brain sections. Although the mean sizes of the PB and CBL were significantly different, the corresponding sizes in the ISA whole brain atlas do not reflect this (Figure 4A). Similarly, the sizes of the neuropils between the standard central complex and the central-complex neuropils in the whole-brain ISA standard do not exhibit the same differences (Figure 4B).

Bottom Line: To explore the usefulness of this atlas, two central-complex neurons, a polarization-sensitive columnar neuron (type CPU1a) and a tangential neuron that is activated during flight, the giant fan-shaped (GFS) neuron, were reconstructed 3D from brain sections.To examine whether the GFS neuron is a candidate to contribute to synaptic input to the CPU1a neuron, we registered both neurons into the standardized central complex.Visualization of both neurons revealed a potential connection of the CPU1a and GFS neurons in layer II of the upper division of the central body.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Fachbereich Biologie, Tierphysiologie, Philipps-Universität Marburg Marburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Many insects use the pattern of polarized light in the sky for spatial orientation and navigation. We have investigated the polarization vision system in the desert locust. To create a common platform for anatomical studies on polarization vision pathways, Kurylas et al. (2008) have generated a three-dimensional (3D) standard brain from confocal microscopy image stacks of 10 male brains, using two different standardization methods, the Iterative Shape Averaging (ISA) procedure and the Virtual Insect Brain (VIB) protocol. Comparison of both standardization methods showed that the VIB standard is ideal for comparative volume analysis of neuropils, whereas the ISA standard is the method of choice to analyze the morphology and connectivity of neurons. The central complex is a key processing stage for polarization information in the locust brain. To investigate neuronal connections between diverse central-complex neurons, we generated a higher-resolution standard atlas of the central complex and surrounding areas, using the ISA method based on brain sections from 20 individual central complexes. To explore the usefulness of this atlas, two central-complex neurons, a polarization-sensitive columnar neuron (type CPU1a) and a tangential neuron that is activated during flight, the giant fan-shaped (GFS) neuron, were reconstructed 3D from brain sections. To examine whether the GFS neuron is a candidate to contribute to synaptic input to the CPU1a neuron, we registered both neurons into the standardized central complex. Visualization of both neurons revealed a potential connection of the CPU1a and GFS neurons in layer II of the upper division of the central body.

No MeSH data available.