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Cryptococcus gattii outbreak expands into the Northwestern United States with fatal consequences.

Byrnes EJ, Heitman J - F1000 Biol Rep (2009)

Bottom Line: In the past decade, the primary fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii has evolved and adapted to the temperate climate of the Pacific Northwest region of North America.This pathogen is now endemic and an increasingly common cause of life-threatening pulmonary and central nervous system infections that are difficult to manage and, in some cases, fatal to humans and other mammals throughout the region.Ongoing studies address the molecular epidemiology, roles of mating and genetic exchange, and geographic origins of this unprecedented outbreak of fungal infection of considerable public health magnitude.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
In the past decade, the primary fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii has evolved and adapted to the temperate climate of the Pacific Northwest region of North America. This pathogen is now endemic and an increasingly common cause of life-threatening pulmonary and central nervous system infections that are difficult to manage and, in some cases, fatal to humans and other mammals throughout the region. A series of recent reports provide evidence that evolutionary, climatic, and anthropogenic factors may be causing the expansion of the Vancouver Island outbreak genotype into the United States, with the concomitant emergence of a unique genotype in the state of Oregon. Ongoing studies address the molecular epidemiology, roles of mating and genetic exchange, and geographic origins of this unprecedented outbreak of fungal infection of considerable public health magnitude.

No MeSH data available.


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Phylogeny of C. gattii VGII genotypes in the United States
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fig-001: Phylogeny of C. gattii VGII genotypes in the United States

Mentions: Analysis of the current molecular data suggests that the emergence in the United States may be more complicated than originally thought. The apparent increase in diversity seen in the US indicates that evolutionary forces may be causing an increase in diversity. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood analysis at seven MLST loci suggests that the novel VGIIc genotype is distinct but closely related to the VGIIa/major genotype when compared with several global VGII genotypes (Figure 1) [10,11]. While closely related, this novel genotype has never been found on Vancouver Island, even though this is one of the most sampled areas globally. This genotype may have originated elsewhere, or alternatively arose locally in Oregon via a genetic cross or a mutational process. This line of evidence leaves open the question of origin, and is a logical point of investigation for future studies.


Cryptococcus gattii outbreak expands into the Northwestern United States with fatal consequences.

Byrnes EJ, Heitman J - F1000 Biol Rep (2009)

Phylogeny of C. gattii VGII genotypes in the United States
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2818080&req=5

fig-001: Phylogeny of C. gattii VGII genotypes in the United States
Mentions: Analysis of the current molecular data suggests that the emergence in the United States may be more complicated than originally thought. The apparent increase in diversity seen in the US indicates that evolutionary forces may be causing an increase in diversity. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood analysis at seven MLST loci suggests that the novel VGIIc genotype is distinct but closely related to the VGIIa/major genotype when compared with several global VGII genotypes (Figure 1) [10,11]. While closely related, this novel genotype has never been found on Vancouver Island, even though this is one of the most sampled areas globally. This genotype may have originated elsewhere, or alternatively arose locally in Oregon via a genetic cross or a mutational process. This line of evidence leaves open the question of origin, and is a logical point of investigation for future studies.

Bottom Line: In the past decade, the primary fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii has evolved and adapted to the temperate climate of the Pacific Northwest region of North America.This pathogen is now endemic and an increasingly common cause of life-threatening pulmonary and central nervous system infections that are difficult to manage and, in some cases, fatal to humans and other mammals throughout the region.Ongoing studies address the molecular epidemiology, roles of mating and genetic exchange, and geographic origins of this unprecedented outbreak of fungal infection of considerable public health magnitude.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
In the past decade, the primary fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii has evolved and adapted to the temperate climate of the Pacific Northwest region of North America. This pathogen is now endemic and an increasingly common cause of life-threatening pulmonary and central nervous system infections that are difficult to manage and, in some cases, fatal to humans and other mammals throughout the region. A series of recent reports provide evidence that evolutionary, climatic, and anthropogenic factors may be causing the expansion of the Vancouver Island outbreak genotype into the United States, with the concomitant emergence of a unique genotype in the state of Oregon. Ongoing studies address the molecular epidemiology, roles of mating and genetic exchange, and geographic origins of this unprecedented outbreak of fungal infection of considerable public health magnitude.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus