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Cerebrospinal fluid tau and ptau(181) increase with cortical amyloid deposition in cognitively normal individuals: implications for future clinical trials of Alzheimer's disease.

Fagan AM, Mintun MA, Shah AR, Aldea P, Roe CM, Mach RH, Marcus D, Morris JC, Holtzman DM - EMBO Mol Med (2009)

Bottom Line: We observe a strong inverse relationship of cortical PIB binding with CSF Abeta(42) but not for plasma Abeta species.Some individuals have low CSF Abeta(42) but no cortical PIB binding.These findings have important implications for preclinical AD diagnosis and treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA. fagana@neuro.wustl.edu

ABSTRACT
Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is estimated to develop many years before detectable cognitive decline. Fluid and imaging biomarkers may identify people in early symptomatic and even preclinical stages, possibly when potential treatments can best preserve cognitive function. We previously reported that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-beta(42) (Abeta(42)) serve as an excellent marker for brain amyloid as detected by the amyloid tracer, Pittsburgh compound B (PIB). Using data from 189 cognitively normal participants, we now report a positive linear relationship between CSF tau/ptau(181) (primary constituents of neurofibrillary tangles) with the amount of cortical amyloid. We observe a strong inverse relationship of cortical PIB binding with CSF Abeta(42) but not for plasma Abeta species. Some individuals have low CSF Abeta(42) but no cortical PIB binding. Together, these data suggest that changes in brain Abeta(42) metabolism and amyloid formation are early pathogenic events in AD, and that significant disruptions in CSF tau metabolism likely occur after Abeta(42) initially aggregates and increases as amyloid accumulates. These findings have important implications for preclinical AD diagnosis and treatment.

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Cortical amyloid as detected by PET PIB and its relationship to CSF tau and ptau181 and the ratios of CSF tau/Aβ42 and ptau181/Aβ42 in CDR 0 participants (n = 189)A linear relationship is observed between the amount of cortical amyloid andthe levels of CSF tauthe levels of CSF ptau181the ratios of CSF tau/Aβ42 andthe ratios of the ptau181/Aβ42. The correlations between the CSF tau(s)/Aβ42 ratios and MCBP remain significant even when the statistical outlier (high PIB, high ratio) is omitted from the analysis (tau/Aβ42, r = 0.74227, p < 0.0001; ptau181/Aβ42, r = 0.73510, p < 0.0001). All Pearson correlation coefficients are corrected for age.
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fig04: Cortical amyloid as detected by PET PIB and its relationship to CSF tau and ptau181 and the ratios of CSF tau/Aβ42 and ptau181/Aβ42 in CDR 0 participants (n = 189)A linear relationship is observed between the amount of cortical amyloid andthe levels of CSF tauthe levels of CSF ptau181the ratios of CSF tau/Aβ42 andthe ratios of the ptau181/Aβ42. The correlations between the CSF tau(s)/Aβ42 ratios and MCBP remain significant even when the statistical outlier (high PIB, high ratio) is omitted from the analysis (tau/Aβ42, r = 0.74227, p < 0.0001; ptau181/Aβ42, r = 0.73510, p < 0.0001). All Pearson correlation coefficients are corrected for age.

Mentions: Importantly, analysis of this CDR 0 cohort revealed a novel pattern of increases in CSF tau (and ptau181) with increasing cortical amyloid deposition (Fig 4A,B). Elevations in CSF tau in general did not appear to occur substantially in participants with an MCBP less than 0.5 but did increase in many, but not all, participants with binding potentials 0.5 and greater. Regression analyses correcting for age revealed a linear relationship between CSF tau (and ptau181) and PIB binding (Fig 4A,B). In addition, the ratios of CSF tau/Aβ42 and ptau181/Aβ42 also increased linearly with amyloid deposition and the correlations were particularly robust (Fig 4C,D). Similar to what we observed for CSF tau and ptau181, the ratios of tau and ptau181 to CSF Aβ42 were generally not elevated until substantial PIB binding values were reached.


Cerebrospinal fluid tau and ptau(181) increase with cortical amyloid deposition in cognitively normal individuals: implications for future clinical trials of Alzheimer's disease.

Fagan AM, Mintun MA, Shah AR, Aldea P, Roe CM, Mach RH, Marcus D, Morris JC, Holtzman DM - EMBO Mol Med (2009)

Cortical amyloid as detected by PET PIB and its relationship to CSF tau and ptau181 and the ratios of CSF tau/Aβ42 and ptau181/Aβ42 in CDR 0 participants (n = 189)A linear relationship is observed between the amount of cortical amyloid andthe levels of CSF tauthe levels of CSF ptau181the ratios of CSF tau/Aβ42 andthe ratios of the ptau181/Aβ42. The correlations between the CSF tau(s)/Aβ42 ratios and MCBP remain significant even when the statistical outlier (high PIB, high ratio) is omitted from the analysis (tau/Aβ42, r = 0.74227, p < 0.0001; ptau181/Aβ42, r = 0.73510, p < 0.0001). All Pearson correlation coefficients are corrected for age.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2806678&req=5

fig04: Cortical amyloid as detected by PET PIB and its relationship to CSF tau and ptau181 and the ratios of CSF tau/Aβ42 and ptau181/Aβ42 in CDR 0 participants (n = 189)A linear relationship is observed between the amount of cortical amyloid andthe levels of CSF tauthe levels of CSF ptau181the ratios of CSF tau/Aβ42 andthe ratios of the ptau181/Aβ42. The correlations between the CSF tau(s)/Aβ42 ratios and MCBP remain significant even when the statistical outlier (high PIB, high ratio) is omitted from the analysis (tau/Aβ42, r = 0.74227, p < 0.0001; ptau181/Aβ42, r = 0.73510, p < 0.0001). All Pearson correlation coefficients are corrected for age.
Mentions: Importantly, analysis of this CDR 0 cohort revealed a novel pattern of increases in CSF tau (and ptau181) with increasing cortical amyloid deposition (Fig 4A,B). Elevations in CSF tau in general did not appear to occur substantially in participants with an MCBP less than 0.5 but did increase in many, but not all, participants with binding potentials 0.5 and greater. Regression analyses correcting for age revealed a linear relationship between CSF tau (and ptau181) and PIB binding (Fig 4A,B). In addition, the ratios of CSF tau/Aβ42 and ptau181/Aβ42 also increased linearly with amyloid deposition and the correlations were particularly robust (Fig 4C,D). Similar to what we observed for CSF tau and ptau181, the ratios of tau and ptau181 to CSF Aβ42 were generally not elevated until substantial PIB binding values were reached.

Bottom Line: We observe a strong inverse relationship of cortical PIB binding with CSF Abeta(42) but not for plasma Abeta species.Some individuals have low CSF Abeta(42) but no cortical PIB binding.These findings have important implications for preclinical AD diagnosis and treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA. fagana@neuro.wustl.edu

ABSTRACT
Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is estimated to develop many years before detectable cognitive decline. Fluid and imaging biomarkers may identify people in early symptomatic and even preclinical stages, possibly when potential treatments can best preserve cognitive function. We previously reported that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-beta(42) (Abeta(42)) serve as an excellent marker for brain amyloid as detected by the amyloid tracer, Pittsburgh compound B (PIB). Using data from 189 cognitively normal participants, we now report a positive linear relationship between CSF tau/ptau(181) (primary constituents of neurofibrillary tangles) with the amount of cortical amyloid. We observe a strong inverse relationship of cortical PIB binding with CSF Abeta(42) but not for plasma Abeta species. Some individuals have low CSF Abeta(42) but no cortical PIB binding. Together, these data suggest that changes in brain Abeta(42) metabolism and amyloid formation are early pathogenic events in AD, and that significant disruptions in CSF tau metabolism likely occur after Abeta(42) initially aggregates and increases as amyloid accumulates. These findings have important implications for preclinical AD diagnosis and treatment.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus