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Transcription factors RUNX1 and RUNX3 in the induction and suppressive function of Foxp3+ inducible regulatory T cells.

Klunker S, Chong MM, Mantel PY, Palomares O, Bassin C, Ziegler M, Rückert B, Meiler F, Akdis M, Littman DR, Akdis CA - J. Exp. Med. (2009)

Bottom Line: Circulating human CD4(+) CD25(high) CD127(-) T reg cells significantly expressed higher levels of RUNX3, FOXP3, and TGF-beta mRNA compared with CD4(+)CD25(-) cells.Furthermore, FOXP3 and RUNX3 were colocalized in human tonsil T reg cells.These data demonstrate Runx transcription factors as a molecular link in TGF-beta-induced Foxp3 expression in iT reg cell differentiation and function.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research Davos, University of Zurich, CH-7270 Davos-Platz, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) inducible regulatory T (iT reg) cells play an important role in immune tolerance and homeostasis. In this study, we show that the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) induces the expression of the Runt-related transcription factors RUNX1 and RUNX3 in CD4(+) T cells. This induction seems to be a prerequisite for the binding of RUNX1 and RUNX3 to three putative RUNX binding sites in the FOXP3 promoter. Inactivation of the gene encoding RUNX cofactor core-binding factor-beta (CBFbeta) in mice and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated suppression of RUNX1 and RUNX3 in human T cells resulted in reduced expression of Foxp3. The in vivo conversion of naive CD4(+) T cells into Foxp3(+) iT reg cells was significantly decreased in adoptively transferred Cbfb(F/F) CD4-cre naive T cells into Rag2(-/-) mice. Both RUNX1 and RUNX3 siRNA silenced human T reg cells and Cbfb(F/F) CD4-cre mouse T reg cells showed diminished suppressive function in vitro. Circulating human CD4(+) CD25(high) CD127(-) T reg cells significantly expressed higher levels of RUNX3, FOXP3, and TGF-beta mRNA compared with CD4(+)CD25(-) cells. Furthermore, FOXP3 and RUNX3 were colocalized in human tonsil T reg cells. These data demonstrate Runx transcription factors as a molecular link in TGF-beta-induced Foxp3 expression in iT reg cell differentiation and function.

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CbfbF/F CD4-cre mouse cells and iT reg cells generated from human naive CD4+ T cells undergoing siRNA-mediated RUNX1 and RUNX3 knock down show a diminished suppressive activity. Experimental setup (A) and results of the mouse suppression assay (B), FACS-purified naive CD4+8− T cells from CbfbF/F CD4-cre (left) and control CbfbF/+ CD4-cre mice (Cd45.2; right) were activated in vitro with anti-CD3/28 mAb, 50 U/ml IL-2, and 2.5 ng/ml TGF-β. After 3 d, Foxp3-GFP+ cells were FACS-sorted and mixed with CFSE-loaded naive CD45.1+ CD4+ cells at the indicated ratios. These were then incubated with inactivated splenocytes and anti-CD3 mAb. After a further 4 d, CD45.1+ cells were analyzed for CFSE dilution. (C) As a control, CbfbF/+ CD4-cre CD4+ T cells activated in absence of TGF-β were mixed with CFSE-loaded naive CD45.1+ CD4+ cells at the indicated ratios. Four days later CD45.1+ cells were analyzed for CFSE dilution. The median division number (of the naive CD45.1+ CD4+ cells in the cultures containing Foxp3-GFP+ cells) is indicated in each of the histograms. One of three experiments is shown. (D) Human naive CD4+ T cells, transfected with RUNX1 and RUNX3 siRNA and cultured under iT reg differentiating conditions were used in an in vitro suppression assay, cultured together with autologous CFSE-labeled CD4+ T cells, and stimulated with anti-CD3 mAb. The CFSE dilution of the CD4+ T cell responder cells was analyzed after 5 d by flow cytometry. The T reg/responder CD4+ T cell ratios used were 1:20, 1:10, and 1:5. One of two experiments is shown.
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fig6: CbfbF/F CD4-cre mouse cells and iT reg cells generated from human naive CD4+ T cells undergoing siRNA-mediated RUNX1 and RUNX3 knock down show a diminished suppressive activity. Experimental setup (A) and results of the mouse suppression assay (B), FACS-purified naive CD4+8− T cells from CbfbF/F CD4-cre (left) and control CbfbF/+ CD4-cre mice (Cd45.2; right) were activated in vitro with anti-CD3/28 mAb, 50 U/ml IL-2, and 2.5 ng/ml TGF-β. After 3 d, Foxp3-GFP+ cells were FACS-sorted and mixed with CFSE-loaded naive CD45.1+ CD4+ cells at the indicated ratios. These were then incubated with inactivated splenocytes and anti-CD3 mAb. After a further 4 d, CD45.1+ cells were analyzed for CFSE dilution. (C) As a control, CbfbF/+ CD4-cre CD4+ T cells activated in absence of TGF-β were mixed with CFSE-loaded naive CD45.1+ CD4+ cells at the indicated ratios. Four days later CD45.1+ cells were analyzed for CFSE dilution. The median division number (of the naive CD45.1+ CD4+ cells in the cultures containing Foxp3-GFP+ cells) is indicated in each of the histograms. One of three experiments is shown. (D) Human naive CD4+ T cells, transfected with RUNX1 and RUNX3 siRNA and cultured under iT reg differentiating conditions were used in an in vitro suppression assay, cultured together with autologous CFSE-labeled CD4+ T cells, and stimulated with anti-CD3 mAb. The CFSE dilution of the CD4+ T cell responder cells was analyzed after 5 d by flow cytometry. The T reg/responder CD4+ T cell ratios used were 1:20, 1:10, and 1:5. One of two experiments is shown.

Mentions: Even though Cbfb-deficient CD4+ T cells had impaired induction of Foxp3 after stimulation with anti-CD3/28 mAbs and TGF-β, sufficient numbers of Foxp3+ cells could be generated to permit analysis of their suppressive activity. Purified naive CD4+ T cells from CbfbF/F CD4-cre and control CbfbF/+CD4-cre mice (Cd45.2) harboring a Foxp3-ires-GFP allele (Bettelli et al., 2006) were stimulated in vitro with anti-CD3/28 mAbs, IL-2, and TGF-β. After 3 d, Foxp3+-GFP+ cells were sorted by flow cytometry and mixed with CFSE-labeled naive CD45.1+ CD4+ cells at ratios of 1:4, 1:2, and 1:1. The cells were then incubated with inactivated splenocytes and stimulated with anti-CD3 mAb for four more days. CD45.1+ cells were analyzed for CFSE dilution (Fig. 6 A). CbfbF/+CD4-cre CD4+ T cells activated in the presence of TGF-β showed a clear suppression of T cell proliferation that became even more apparent when an increased ratio of FOXP3+/CD25− cells was used (Fig. 6 B). The suppression was significantly reduced when cells from CbfbF/F CD4-cre mice were used, demonstrating that TGF-β–induced Runx complexes are important for the suppressive activity of Foxp3+ T reg cells (Fig. 6 B). As a control, CbfbF/+CD4-cre CD4+ T cells activated in absence of TGF-β were mixed with CFSE-labeled naive CD45.1+ CD4+ cells. No suppression could be observed in all control groups without TGF-β at all tested ratios (Fig. 6 C). The decreased suppression capacity of CbfbF/F CD4-cre iT reg cells was unlikely to be caused by decreased survival or proliferation. Foxp3+ and Foxp3− cells generated from both CbfbF/F CD4-cre and control cells all displayed similar proliferation rates and cell death as measured by CFSE dilution and annexin V staining, respectively (Fig. S7, A and B).


Transcription factors RUNX1 and RUNX3 in the induction and suppressive function of Foxp3+ inducible regulatory T cells.

Klunker S, Chong MM, Mantel PY, Palomares O, Bassin C, Ziegler M, Rückert B, Meiler F, Akdis M, Littman DR, Akdis CA - J. Exp. Med. (2009)

CbfbF/F CD4-cre mouse cells and iT reg cells generated from human naive CD4+ T cells undergoing siRNA-mediated RUNX1 and RUNX3 knock down show a diminished suppressive activity. Experimental setup (A) and results of the mouse suppression assay (B), FACS-purified naive CD4+8− T cells from CbfbF/F CD4-cre (left) and control CbfbF/+ CD4-cre mice (Cd45.2; right) were activated in vitro with anti-CD3/28 mAb, 50 U/ml IL-2, and 2.5 ng/ml TGF-β. After 3 d, Foxp3-GFP+ cells were FACS-sorted and mixed with CFSE-loaded naive CD45.1+ CD4+ cells at the indicated ratios. These were then incubated with inactivated splenocytes and anti-CD3 mAb. After a further 4 d, CD45.1+ cells were analyzed for CFSE dilution. (C) As a control, CbfbF/+ CD4-cre CD4+ T cells activated in absence of TGF-β were mixed with CFSE-loaded naive CD45.1+ CD4+ cells at the indicated ratios. Four days later CD45.1+ cells were analyzed for CFSE dilution. The median division number (of the naive CD45.1+ CD4+ cells in the cultures containing Foxp3-GFP+ cells) is indicated in each of the histograms. One of three experiments is shown. (D) Human naive CD4+ T cells, transfected with RUNX1 and RUNX3 siRNA and cultured under iT reg differentiating conditions were used in an in vitro suppression assay, cultured together with autologous CFSE-labeled CD4+ T cells, and stimulated with anti-CD3 mAb. The CFSE dilution of the CD4+ T cell responder cells was analyzed after 5 d by flow cytometry. The T reg/responder CD4+ T cell ratios used were 1:20, 1:10, and 1:5. One of two experiments is shown.
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fig6: CbfbF/F CD4-cre mouse cells and iT reg cells generated from human naive CD4+ T cells undergoing siRNA-mediated RUNX1 and RUNX3 knock down show a diminished suppressive activity. Experimental setup (A) and results of the mouse suppression assay (B), FACS-purified naive CD4+8− T cells from CbfbF/F CD4-cre (left) and control CbfbF/+ CD4-cre mice (Cd45.2; right) were activated in vitro with anti-CD3/28 mAb, 50 U/ml IL-2, and 2.5 ng/ml TGF-β. After 3 d, Foxp3-GFP+ cells were FACS-sorted and mixed with CFSE-loaded naive CD45.1+ CD4+ cells at the indicated ratios. These were then incubated with inactivated splenocytes and anti-CD3 mAb. After a further 4 d, CD45.1+ cells were analyzed for CFSE dilution. (C) As a control, CbfbF/+ CD4-cre CD4+ T cells activated in absence of TGF-β were mixed with CFSE-loaded naive CD45.1+ CD4+ cells at the indicated ratios. Four days later CD45.1+ cells were analyzed for CFSE dilution. The median division number (of the naive CD45.1+ CD4+ cells in the cultures containing Foxp3-GFP+ cells) is indicated in each of the histograms. One of three experiments is shown. (D) Human naive CD4+ T cells, transfected with RUNX1 and RUNX3 siRNA and cultured under iT reg differentiating conditions were used in an in vitro suppression assay, cultured together with autologous CFSE-labeled CD4+ T cells, and stimulated with anti-CD3 mAb. The CFSE dilution of the CD4+ T cell responder cells was analyzed after 5 d by flow cytometry. The T reg/responder CD4+ T cell ratios used were 1:20, 1:10, and 1:5. One of two experiments is shown.
Mentions: Even though Cbfb-deficient CD4+ T cells had impaired induction of Foxp3 after stimulation with anti-CD3/28 mAbs and TGF-β, sufficient numbers of Foxp3+ cells could be generated to permit analysis of their suppressive activity. Purified naive CD4+ T cells from CbfbF/F CD4-cre and control CbfbF/+CD4-cre mice (Cd45.2) harboring a Foxp3-ires-GFP allele (Bettelli et al., 2006) were stimulated in vitro with anti-CD3/28 mAbs, IL-2, and TGF-β. After 3 d, Foxp3+-GFP+ cells were sorted by flow cytometry and mixed with CFSE-labeled naive CD45.1+ CD4+ cells at ratios of 1:4, 1:2, and 1:1. The cells were then incubated with inactivated splenocytes and stimulated with anti-CD3 mAb for four more days. CD45.1+ cells were analyzed for CFSE dilution (Fig. 6 A). CbfbF/+CD4-cre CD4+ T cells activated in the presence of TGF-β showed a clear suppression of T cell proliferation that became even more apparent when an increased ratio of FOXP3+/CD25− cells was used (Fig. 6 B). The suppression was significantly reduced when cells from CbfbF/F CD4-cre mice were used, demonstrating that TGF-β–induced Runx complexes are important for the suppressive activity of Foxp3+ T reg cells (Fig. 6 B). As a control, CbfbF/+CD4-cre CD4+ T cells activated in absence of TGF-β were mixed with CFSE-labeled naive CD45.1+ CD4+ cells. No suppression could be observed in all control groups without TGF-β at all tested ratios (Fig. 6 C). The decreased suppression capacity of CbfbF/F CD4-cre iT reg cells was unlikely to be caused by decreased survival or proliferation. Foxp3+ and Foxp3− cells generated from both CbfbF/F CD4-cre and control cells all displayed similar proliferation rates and cell death as measured by CFSE dilution and annexin V staining, respectively (Fig. S7, A and B).

Bottom Line: Circulating human CD4(+) CD25(high) CD127(-) T reg cells significantly expressed higher levels of RUNX3, FOXP3, and TGF-beta mRNA compared with CD4(+)CD25(-) cells.Furthermore, FOXP3 and RUNX3 were colocalized in human tonsil T reg cells.These data demonstrate Runx transcription factors as a molecular link in TGF-beta-induced Foxp3 expression in iT reg cell differentiation and function.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research Davos, University of Zurich, CH-7270 Davos-Platz, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) inducible regulatory T (iT reg) cells play an important role in immune tolerance and homeostasis. In this study, we show that the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) induces the expression of the Runt-related transcription factors RUNX1 and RUNX3 in CD4(+) T cells. This induction seems to be a prerequisite for the binding of RUNX1 and RUNX3 to three putative RUNX binding sites in the FOXP3 promoter. Inactivation of the gene encoding RUNX cofactor core-binding factor-beta (CBFbeta) in mice and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated suppression of RUNX1 and RUNX3 in human T cells resulted in reduced expression of Foxp3. The in vivo conversion of naive CD4(+) T cells into Foxp3(+) iT reg cells was significantly decreased in adoptively transferred Cbfb(F/F) CD4-cre naive T cells into Rag2(-/-) mice. Both RUNX1 and RUNX3 siRNA silenced human T reg cells and Cbfb(F/F) CD4-cre mouse T reg cells showed diminished suppressive function in vitro. Circulating human CD4(+) CD25(high) CD127(-) T reg cells significantly expressed higher levels of RUNX3, FOXP3, and TGF-beta mRNA compared with CD4(+)CD25(-) cells. Furthermore, FOXP3 and RUNX3 were colocalized in human tonsil T reg cells. These data demonstrate Runx transcription factors as a molecular link in TGF-beta-induced Foxp3 expression in iT reg cell differentiation and function.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus