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Temporal and spatial stability of Anopheles gambiae larval habitat distribution in Western Kenya highlands.

Li L, Bian L, Yakob L, Zhou G, Yan G - Int J Health Geogr (2009)

Bottom Line: In order to optimize the utility of these tools, detailed knowledge of the spatial distribution patterns of mosquito larval habitats is crucial.Using larval habitat data collected in western Kenya highlands during both dry and rainy seasons of 2003-2005, this study analyzed the seasonal and inter-annual changes in the spatial patterns in mosquito larval habitat distributions.We found that the spatial patterns of larval habitats had significant temporal variability both seasonally and inter-annually.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Political Science and Geography, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, USA. lili36@ub-alumni.org

ABSTRACT

Background: Localized mosquito larval habitat management and the use of larvicides have been proposed as important control tools in integrated malaria vector management programs. In order to optimize the utility of these tools, detailed knowledge of the spatial distribution patterns of mosquito larval habitats is crucial. However, the spatial and temporal changes of habitat distribution patterns under different climatic conditions are rarely quantified and their implications to larval control are unknown.

Results: Using larval habitat data collected in western Kenya highlands during both dry and rainy seasons of 2003-2005, this study analyzed the seasonal and inter-annual changes in the spatial patterns in mosquito larval habitat distributions. We found that the spatial patterns of larval habitats had significant temporal variability both seasonally and inter-annually.

Conclusions: The pattern of larval habitats is extremely important to the epidemiology of malaria because it results in spatial heterogeneity in the adult mosquito population and, subsequently, the spatial distribution of clinical malaria cases. Results from this study suggest that larval habitat management activities need to consider the dynamic nature of malaria vector habitats.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Location of the study area: (upper left) the map of dry season anopheline-positive habitats in 2005 (the black dots are positive habitats and the white dots with black outlines are negative habitats i.e. stagnant aquatic habitats that contain no Anopheles larvae); (lower left) the map of rainy season anopheline-positive habitats in 2005; (right) the map showing the location of the study areas and the regions of Kenya. The scale bar is associated with the two maps on the left sides.
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Figure 1: Location of the study area: (upper left) the map of dry season anopheline-positive habitats in 2005 (the black dots are positive habitats and the white dots with black outlines are negative habitats i.e. stagnant aquatic habitats that contain no Anopheles larvae); (lower left) the map of rainy season anopheline-positive habitats in 2005; (right) the map showing the location of the study areas and the regions of Kenya. The scale bar is associated with the two maps on the left sides.

Mentions: The study was conducted in a 4 by 4 km2 area in Kakamega District, western Kenya (Figure 1). The terrain of the study area consists of numerous hills flanking a central valley, with elevation ranging between 1,420 - 1,580 m above sea level. Typical of East Africa highlands, the study area is characterized mainly by faulted plateaus [16]. The Yala River runs through the central valley from east to west. Between 1960 and 1999, the average annual rainfall for the study area was 1,977 mm [17]. The East African highlands experience an alteration between dry seasons (December to March) and rainy seasons (April to June) with a clear inter-annual variation in precipitation [18,19].


Temporal and spatial stability of Anopheles gambiae larval habitat distribution in Western Kenya highlands.

Li L, Bian L, Yakob L, Zhou G, Yan G - Int J Health Geogr (2009)

Location of the study area: (upper left) the map of dry season anopheline-positive habitats in 2005 (the black dots are positive habitats and the white dots with black outlines are negative habitats i.e. stagnant aquatic habitats that contain no Anopheles larvae); (lower left) the map of rainy season anopheline-positive habitats in 2005; (right) the map showing the location of the study areas and the regions of Kenya. The scale bar is associated with the two maps on the left sides.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2803444&req=5

Figure 1: Location of the study area: (upper left) the map of dry season anopheline-positive habitats in 2005 (the black dots are positive habitats and the white dots with black outlines are negative habitats i.e. stagnant aquatic habitats that contain no Anopheles larvae); (lower left) the map of rainy season anopheline-positive habitats in 2005; (right) the map showing the location of the study areas and the regions of Kenya. The scale bar is associated with the two maps on the left sides.
Mentions: The study was conducted in a 4 by 4 km2 area in Kakamega District, western Kenya (Figure 1). The terrain of the study area consists of numerous hills flanking a central valley, with elevation ranging between 1,420 - 1,580 m above sea level. Typical of East Africa highlands, the study area is characterized mainly by faulted plateaus [16]. The Yala River runs through the central valley from east to west. Between 1960 and 1999, the average annual rainfall for the study area was 1,977 mm [17]. The East African highlands experience an alteration between dry seasons (December to March) and rainy seasons (April to June) with a clear inter-annual variation in precipitation [18,19].

Bottom Line: In order to optimize the utility of these tools, detailed knowledge of the spatial distribution patterns of mosquito larval habitats is crucial.Using larval habitat data collected in western Kenya highlands during both dry and rainy seasons of 2003-2005, this study analyzed the seasonal and inter-annual changes in the spatial patterns in mosquito larval habitat distributions.We found that the spatial patterns of larval habitats had significant temporal variability both seasonally and inter-annually.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Political Science and Geography, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, USA. lili36@ub-alumni.org

ABSTRACT

Background: Localized mosquito larval habitat management and the use of larvicides have been proposed as important control tools in integrated malaria vector management programs. In order to optimize the utility of these tools, detailed knowledge of the spatial distribution patterns of mosquito larval habitats is crucial. However, the spatial and temporal changes of habitat distribution patterns under different climatic conditions are rarely quantified and their implications to larval control are unknown.

Results: Using larval habitat data collected in western Kenya highlands during both dry and rainy seasons of 2003-2005, this study analyzed the seasonal and inter-annual changes in the spatial patterns in mosquito larval habitat distributions. We found that the spatial patterns of larval habitats had significant temporal variability both seasonally and inter-annually.

Conclusions: The pattern of larval habitats is extremely important to the epidemiology of malaria because it results in spatial heterogeneity in the adult mosquito population and, subsequently, the spatial distribution of clinical malaria cases. Results from this study suggest that larval habitat management activities need to consider the dynamic nature of malaria vector habitats.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus