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AIDS vaccine development: the past, the present, and the future.

Ahn S, Sung Y - Immune Netw (2009)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cellular Immunology Laboratory, Division of Molecular and Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Korea.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
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In addition, the development of antiretroviral drugs reduced the mortality of some HIV-infected individuals... However, high price and side effects of the current therapeutic drugs have not been beneficial for most AIDS patients... In 1989, the hopes for a HIV vaccine started from a highly effective formalin-inactivated whole SIV vaccine which was known to confer protection in macaques with AIDS... However, three years later, it was found that the protective effect was mediated by antigens (such as HLA and β2m) from the human cells used to grow the viral strain... In 1992, Dr. Ronald Desrosiers reported that a live attenuated SIV vaccine with a deletion in the nef gene can be efficient in treating AIDS of macaques... Unfortunately, three years later, Dr. Ruth Ruprecht found that this live attenuated vaccine had a safety issue in which the vaccine itself caused AIDS in neonatal macaques... Among them, DNA vaccine is the most promising AIDS vaccine since it was the only one that could provide a safe and protective immunity against HIV... Hence, the vaccine that has similar qualities and induces a strong response of the immune system similar to that of the live attenuated vaccine is the most probable to become a successful AIDS vaccine... In this regard, the fact that the DNA vaccine with electroporation (EP) does not have a vectored immunity makes it an excellent candidate because it can induce antibodies and a T cell response by continuous injections which are as powerful as live the attenuated vaccine... Therefore, there are high expectations for DNA vaccine with EP to develop successful AIDS vaccines commercially available in the near future... In order to develop an effective DNA vaccine with EP, the vaccine candidate should be evaluated thoroughly in terms of protective immunity in a small number of volunteers before entering large-scale phase IIb~III efficacy trials.

No MeSH data available.


Time lines for HIV/AIDS pandemic and the development for AIDS vaccines.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 1: Time lines for HIV/AIDS pandemic and the development for AIDS vaccines.

Mentions: Discovery of the causative agent of AIDS had been the driving force to investigate its genomic structure, function, and replication mechanism. Most importantly, the development of a diagnostic kit contributed to the knowledge of AIDS as an infectious disease especially in the route of transmission. In addition, the development of antiretroviral drugs reduced the mortality of some HIV-infected individuals. However, high price and side effects of the current therapeutic drugs have not been beneficial for most AIDS patients. Thus, it has been generally accepted that the development of a low price and effective prophylactic AIDS vaccine is the only answer to stop the global epidemic. Despite tremendous efforts over the past 25 years, there is no promising candidate for an HIV vaccine. No one has even been able to design and develop a model leading to an effective vaccine. This review will introduce four major milestones in AIDS vaccine development to date which resulted in major social, economic and scientific impacts (Fig. 1).


AIDS vaccine development: the past, the present, and the future.

Ahn S, Sung Y - Immune Netw (2009)

Time lines for HIV/AIDS pandemic and the development for AIDS vaccines.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2803297&req=5

Figure 1: Time lines for HIV/AIDS pandemic and the development for AIDS vaccines.
Mentions: Discovery of the causative agent of AIDS had been the driving force to investigate its genomic structure, function, and replication mechanism. Most importantly, the development of a diagnostic kit contributed to the knowledge of AIDS as an infectious disease especially in the route of transmission. In addition, the development of antiretroviral drugs reduced the mortality of some HIV-infected individuals. However, high price and side effects of the current therapeutic drugs have not been beneficial for most AIDS patients. Thus, it has been generally accepted that the development of a low price and effective prophylactic AIDS vaccine is the only answer to stop the global epidemic. Despite tremendous efforts over the past 25 years, there is no promising candidate for an HIV vaccine. No one has even been able to design and develop a model leading to an effective vaccine. This review will introduce four major milestones in AIDS vaccine development to date which resulted in major social, economic and scientific impacts (Fig. 1).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cellular Immunology Laboratory, Division of Molecular and Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Korea.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

In addition, the development of antiretroviral drugs reduced the mortality of some HIV-infected individuals... However, high price and side effects of the current therapeutic drugs have not been beneficial for most AIDS patients... In 1989, the hopes for a HIV vaccine started from a highly effective formalin-inactivated whole SIV vaccine which was known to confer protection in macaques with AIDS... However, three years later, it was found that the protective effect was mediated by antigens (such as HLA and β2m) from the human cells used to grow the viral strain... In 1992, Dr. Ronald Desrosiers reported that a live attenuated SIV vaccine with a deletion in the nef gene can be efficient in treating AIDS of macaques... Unfortunately, three years later, Dr. Ruth Ruprecht found that this live attenuated vaccine had a safety issue in which the vaccine itself caused AIDS in neonatal macaques... Among them, DNA vaccine is the most promising AIDS vaccine since it was the only one that could provide a safe and protective immunity against HIV... Hence, the vaccine that has similar qualities and induces a strong response of the immune system similar to that of the live attenuated vaccine is the most probable to become a successful AIDS vaccine... In this regard, the fact that the DNA vaccine with electroporation (EP) does not have a vectored immunity makes it an excellent candidate because it can induce antibodies and a T cell response by continuous injections which are as powerful as live the attenuated vaccine... Therefore, there are high expectations for DNA vaccine with EP to develop successful AIDS vaccines commercially available in the near future... In order to develop an effective DNA vaccine with EP, the vaccine candidate should be evaluated thoroughly in terms of protective immunity in a small number of volunteers before entering large-scale phase IIb~III efficacy trials.

No MeSH data available.