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Differential gene expression analysis provides new insights into the molecular basis of iron deficiency stress response in the citrus rootstock Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.

Forner-Giner MA, Llosá MJ, Carrasco JL, Perez-Amador MA, Navarro L, Ancillo G - J. Exp. Bot. (2009)

Bottom Line: Usual remediation strategies consist of amending iron to soil, which is an expensive practice, or using tolerant cultivars, which are difficult to develop when not available.The genes identified are putatively involved in cell wall modification, in determining photosynthesis rate and chlorophyll content, and reducing oxidative stress.Additional studies on cell wall morphology, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll content, as well as peroxidase and catalase activities, support their possible functions in the response to iron deficiency in a susceptible genotype, and the results are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Carretera Moncada-Náquera, Km 4.5, Moncada, Valencia, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Iron chlorosis is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting fruit trees and other crops in calcareous soils and leads to a reduction in growth and yield. Usual remediation strategies consist of amending iron to soil, which is an expensive practice, or using tolerant cultivars, which are difficult to develop when not available. To understand the mechanisms underlying the associated physiopathy better, and thus develop new strategies to overcome the problems resulting from iron deficiency, the differential gene expression induced by iron deficiency in the susceptible citrus rootstock Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. have been examined. The genes identified are putatively involved in cell wall modification, in determining photosynthesis rate and chlorophyll content, and reducing oxidative stress. Additional studies on cell wall morphology, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll content, as well as peroxidase and catalase activities, support their possible functions in the response to iron deficiency in a susceptible genotype, and the results are discussed.

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Propidium iodide staining (A, B), ruthenium red staining (C, D), and calcofluor staining (E, F) in roots of Poncirus trifoliata treated for 60 d with Fe-DDHA (A, C, E) or without Fe-DDHA (B, D, F) in nutrient solution.
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fig1: Propidium iodide staining (A, B), ruthenium red staining (C, D), and calcofluor staining (E, F) in roots of Poncirus trifoliata treated for 60 d with Fe-DDHA (A, C, E) or without Fe-DDHA (B, D, F) in nutrient solution.

Mentions: A set of plants was grown in the absence of iron and a different set was grown under standard conditions as control plants. Roots of both sets were stained with propidium iodide, a fluorescent dye commonly used to stain plant roots (Truernit et al., 2006). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed that the cell walls of plants undergoing iron starvation were less stained than the control ones (Fig. 1A, B) suggesting a reduction in the cell wall thickness of stressed plants. Although this is a clear indication that iron deficiency is affecting the cell wall, it gives little information as to which component of the cell wall is affected. To obtain more detailed information about the differences in the components of the cell wall that might be altered in response to iron deficiency, more selective dyes were used. When roots were stained for pectin with ruthenium red (Hanke and Northcote, 1975), thinning of the cell wall became clearly evident again in Fe-deficient roots (Fig. 1C, D). In addition, Calcofluor, which binds to various β-D-glucans including cellulose, xyloglucan, callose, and chitin (Hughes and McCully, 1975; Krishnamurthy, 1999), stained the cell walls of roots of Fe-deficient plants to a greater extent than those of control plants (Fig. 1E, F).


Differential gene expression analysis provides new insights into the molecular basis of iron deficiency stress response in the citrus rootstock Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.

Forner-Giner MA, Llosá MJ, Carrasco JL, Perez-Amador MA, Navarro L, Ancillo G - J. Exp. Bot. (2009)

Propidium iodide staining (A, B), ruthenium red staining (C, D), and calcofluor staining (E, F) in roots of Poncirus trifoliata treated for 60 d with Fe-DDHA (A, C, E) or without Fe-DDHA (B, D, F) in nutrient solution.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2803221&req=5

fig1: Propidium iodide staining (A, B), ruthenium red staining (C, D), and calcofluor staining (E, F) in roots of Poncirus trifoliata treated for 60 d with Fe-DDHA (A, C, E) or without Fe-DDHA (B, D, F) in nutrient solution.
Mentions: A set of plants was grown in the absence of iron and a different set was grown under standard conditions as control plants. Roots of both sets were stained with propidium iodide, a fluorescent dye commonly used to stain plant roots (Truernit et al., 2006). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed that the cell walls of plants undergoing iron starvation were less stained than the control ones (Fig. 1A, B) suggesting a reduction in the cell wall thickness of stressed plants. Although this is a clear indication that iron deficiency is affecting the cell wall, it gives little information as to which component of the cell wall is affected. To obtain more detailed information about the differences in the components of the cell wall that might be altered in response to iron deficiency, more selective dyes were used. When roots were stained for pectin with ruthenium red (Hanke and Northcote, 1975), thinning of the cell wall became clearly evident again in Fe-deficient roots (Fig. 1C, D). In addition, Calcofluor, which binds to various β-D-glucans including cellulose, xyloglucan, callose, and chitin (Hughes and McCully, 1975; Krishnamurthy, 1999), stained the cell walls of roots of Fe-deficient plants to a greater extent than those of control plants (Fig. 1E, F).

Bottom Line: Usual remediation strategies consist of amending iron to soil, which is an expensive practice, or using tolerant cultivars, which are difficult to develop when not available.The genes identified are putatively involved in cell wall modification, in determining photosynthesis rate and chlorophyll content, and reducing oxidative stress.Additional studies on cell wall morphology, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll content, as well as peroxidase and catalase activities, support their possible functions in the response to iron deficiency in a susceptible genotype, and the results are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Carretera Moncada-Náquera, Km 4.5, Moncada, Valencia, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Iron chlorosis is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting fruit trees and other crops in calcareous soils and leads to a reduction in growth and yield. Usual remediation strategies consist of amending iron to soil, which is an expensive practice, or using tolerant cultivars, which are difficult to develop when not available. To understand the mechanisms underlying the associated physiopathy better, and thus develop new strategies to overcome the problems resulting from iron deficiency, the differential gene expression induced by iron deficiency in the susceptible citrus rootstock Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. have been examined. The genes identified are putatively involved in cell wall modification, in determining photosynthesis rate and chlorophyll content, and reducing oxidative stress. Additional studies on cell wall morphology, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll content, as well as peroxidase and catalase activities, support their possible functions in the response to iron deficiency in a susceptible genotype, and the results are discussed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus