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An Arabidopsis flavonoid transporter is required for anther dehiscence and pollen development.

Thompson EP, Wilkins C, Demidchik V, Davies JM, Glover BJ - J. Exp. Bot. (2009)

Bottom Line: Mutant analysis demonstrates that the absence of FFT transcript affects flavonoid levels in the plant and that the altered flavonoid metabolism has wide-ranging consequences.Root growth, seed development and germination, and pollen development, release and viability are all affected.Thus, as well as adding FFT to the incompletely described flavonoid transport network, it is found that correct reproductive development in Arabidopsis is perturbed when this particular transporter is missing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK.

ABSTRACT
FLOWER FLAVONOID TRANSPORTER (FFT) encodes a multidrug and toxin efflux family transporter in Arabidopsis thaliana. FFT (AtDTX35) is highly transcribed in floral tissues, the transcript being localized to epidermal guard cells, including those of the anthers, stigma, siliques and nectaries. Mutant analysis demonstrates that the absence of FFT transcript affects flavonoid levels in the plant and that the altered flavonoid metabolism has wide-ranging consequences. Root growth, seed development and germination, and pollen development, release and viability are all affected. Spectrometry of mutant versus wild-type flowers shows altered levels of a glycosylated flavonol whereas anthocyanin seems unlikely to be the substrate as previously speculated. Thus, as well as adding FFT to the incompletely described flavonoid transport network, it is found that correct reproductive development in Arabidopsis is perturbed when this particular transporter is missing.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Alexander's staining showing (left–right) lack of dehiscence, no pollen on the stigma, and reduced proportion of viable pollen in anthers in fft-1 (second row) versus Col0 (top row). Top right: pollen production and dehiscence in complemented fft-1. (b) Variable success of silique production in fft-1 versus Col0 and complemented fft-1.
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fig5: (a) Alexander's staining showing (left–right) lack of dehiscence, no pollen on the stigma, and reduced proportion of viable pollen in anthers in fft-1 (second row) versus Col0 (top row). Top right: pollen production and dehiscence in complemented fft-1. (b) Variable success of silique production in fft-1 versus Col0 and complemented fft-1.

Mentions: When examined using cryo-SEM, a proportion of mutant pollen appeared shrunken and irregular, and/or had an aberrant surface structure (Supplementary Fig. S6 at JXB online). To examine this further, Alexander's stain was used to differentiate viable from non-viable pollen. Acid fuchsin stains the protoplasm of viable pollen purple, and malachite green (MG) is a background counterstain. This can give an overestimate of viability, since non-viable pollen can contain protoplasm (Pline et al., 2002), but here a distinct difference between WT and fft-1 flowers was shown (Fig. 5a). Series of flowers at identical stages and positions on the primary inflorescence were sampled and stained. In contrast to WT anthers, which were plump, full of purple-stained pollen, and showed many pollen grains released upon dehiscence, the mutant anthers appeared thinner and had a lower proportion of (but did contain some) round, purple pollen grains. Much of the pollen in mutant anthers stained only blue-green, the cell walls coloured only by MG (Fig. 5a).


An Arabidopsis flavonoid transporter is required for anther dehiscence and pollen development.

Thompson EP, Wilkins C, Demidchik V, Davies JM, Glover BJ - J. Exp. Bot. (2009)

(a) Alexander's staining showing (left–right) lack of dehiscence, no pollen on the stigma, and reduced proportion of viable pollen in anthers in fft-1 (second row) versus Col0 (top row). Top right: pollen production and dehiscence in complemented fft-1. (b) Variable success of silique production in fft-1 versus Col0 and complemented fft-1.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2803208&req=5

fig5: (a) Alexander's staining showing (left–right) lack of dehiscence, no pollen on the stigma, and reduced proportion of viable pollen in anthers in fft-1 (second row) versus Col0 (top row). Top right: pollen production and dehiscence in complemented fft-1. (b) Variable success of silique production in fft-1 versus Col0 and complemented fft-1.
Mentions: When examined using cryo-SEM, a proportion of mutant pollen appeared shrunken and irregular, and/or had an aberrant surface structure (Supplementary Fig. S6 at JXB online). To examine this further, Alexander's stain was used to differentiate viable from non-viable pollen. Acid fuchsin stains the protoplasm of viable pollen purple, and malachite green (MG) is a background counterstain. This can give an overestimate of viability, since non-viable pollen can contain protoplasm (Pline et al., 2002), but here a distinct difference between WT and fft-1 flowers was shown (Fig. 5a). Series of flowers at identical stages and positions on the primary inflorescence were sampled and stained. In contrast to WT anthers, which were plump, full of purple-stained pollen, and showed many pollen grains released upon dehiscence, the mutant anthers appeared thinner and had a lower proportion of (but did contain some) round, purple pollen grains. Much of the pollen in mutant anthers stained only blue-green, the cell walls coloured only by MG (Fig. 5a).

Bottom Line: Mutant analysis demonstrates that the absence of FFT transcript affects flavonoid levels in the plant and that the altered flavonoid metabolism has wide-ranging consequences.Root growth, seed development and germination, and pollen development, release and viability are all affected.Thus, as well as adding FFT to the incompletely described flavonoid transport network, it is found that correct reproductive development in Arabidopsis is perturbed when this particular transporter is missing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK.

ABSTRACT
FLOWER FLAVONOID TRANSPORTER (FFT) encodes a multidrug and toxin efflux family transporter in Arabidopsis thaliana. FFT (AtDTX35) is highly transcribed in floral tissues, the transcript being localized to epidermal guard cells, including those of the anthers, stigma, siliques and nectaries. Mutant analysis demonstrates that the absence of FFT transcript affects flavonoid levels in the plant and that the altered flavonoid metabolism has wide-ranging consequences. Root growth, seed development and germination, and pollen development, release and viability are all affected. Spectrometry of mutant versus wild-type flowers shows altered levels of a glycosylated flavonol whereas anthocyanin seems unlikely to be the substrate as previously speculated. Thus, as well as adding FFT to the incompletely described flavonoid transport network, it is found that correct reproductive development in Arabidopsis is perturbed when this particular transporter is missing.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus