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An Arabidopsis flavonoid transporter is required for anther dehiscence and pollen development.

Thompson EP, Wilkins C, Demidchik V, Davies JM, Glover BJ - J. Exp. Bot. (2009)

Bottom Line: Mutant analysis demonstrates that the absence of FFT transcript affects flavonoid levels in the plant and that the altered flavonoid metabolism has wide-ranging consequences.Root growth, seed development and germination, and pollen development, release and viability are all affected.Thus, as well as adding FFT to the incompletely described flavonoid transport network, it is found that correct reproductive development in Arabidopsis is perturbed when this particular transporter is missing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK.

ABSTRACT
FLOWER FLAVONOID TRANSPORTER (FFT) encodes a multidrug and toxin efflux family transporter in Arabidopsis thaliana. FFT (AtDTX35) is highly transcribed in floral tissues, the transcript being localized to epidermal guard cells, including those of the anthers, stigma, siliques and nectaries. Mutant analysis demonstrates that the absence of FFT transcript affects flavonoid levels in the plant and that the altered flavonoid metabolism has wide-ranging consequences. Root growth, seed development and germination, and pollen development, release and viability are all affected. Spectrometry of mutant versus wild-type flowers shows altered levels of a glycosylated flavonol whereas anthocyanin seems unlikely to be the substrate as previously speculated. Thus, as well as adding FFT to the incompletely described flavonoid transport network, it is found that correct reproductive development in Arabidopsis is perturbed when this particular transporter is missing.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Mutant fft-1 (- -) roots grow more quickly than Col0 (—) up to ∼2 weeks. (a) No sucrose: day 6–12, P=0.002–0.003 (n=70–81 for each time point). Inset: Col0 and fft-1 seedlings at day 4 post-stratification. (b) 1% sucrose: day 6–12, P <0.0001–0.001 (n=60–97 for each time point). (c) The fft-1 mutant complemented with 35S-At4g25640 returns to wild-type growth characteristics. (This figure is available in colour at JXB online.)
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fig4: Mutant fft-1 (- -) roots grow more quickly than Col0 (—) up to ∼2 weeks. (a) No sucrose: day 6–12, P=0.002–0.003 (n=70–81 for each time point). Inset: Col0 and fft-1 seedlings at day 4 post-stratification. (b) 1% sucrose: day 6–12, P <0.0001–0.001 (n=60–97 for each time point). (c) The fft-1 mutant complemented with 35S-At4g25640 returns to wild-type growth characteristics. (This figure is available in colour at JXB online.)

Mentions: It was noticed that mutant seedlings appeared to grow and mature more quickly than the WT, so assays of root growth were carried out using plants on 1/2MS with and without sucrose (the former to promote anthocyanin production, in case of any effect). The mutant showed significantly faster root growth in all cases (Fig. 4a, b; for no sucrose: t-test, P <0.001 day 8, 64 df). Although the different germination characteristics meant that fewer fft-1 seeds were viable than WT seeds, the difference in mean rate of root growth developed after day 3–4 ps (when all viable seeds had successfully germinated) and continued to develop, suggesting that faster germination was not the primary cause of the root growth phenotype. The growth rate of fft-1 up to 2 weeks was greater under all conditions tested, including cold (4 °C) and higher intensity light (250 μmol m−2 s−1).


An Arabidopsis flavonoid transporter is required for anther dehiscence and pollen development.

Thompson EP, Wilkins C, Demidchik V, Davies JM, Glover BJ - J. Exp. Bot. (2009)

Mutant fft-1 (- -) roots grow more quickly than Col0 (—) up to ∼2 weeks. (a) No sucrose: day 6–12, P=0.002–0.003 (n=70–81 for each time point). Inset: Col0 and fft-1 seedlings at day 4 post-stratification. (b) 1% sucrose: day 6–12, P <0.0001–0.001 (n=60–97 for each time point). (c) The fft-1 mutant complemented with 35S-At4g25640 returns to wild-type growth characteristics. (This figure is available in colour at JXB online.)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2803208&req=5

fig4: Mutant fft-1 (- -) roots grow more quickly than Col0 (—) up to ∼2 weeks. (a) No sucrose: day 6–12, P=0.002–0.003 (n=70–81 for each time point). Inset: Col0 and fft-1 seedlings at day 4 post-stratification. (b) 1% sucrose: day 6–12, P <0.0001–0.001 (n=60–97 for each time point). (c) The fft-1 mutant complemented with 35S-At4g25640 returns to wild-type growth characteristics. (This figure is available in colour at JXB online.)
Mentions: It was noticed that mutant seedlings appeared to grow and mature more quickly than the WT, so assays of root growth were carried out using plants on 1/2MS with and without sucrose (the former to promote anthocyanin production, in case of any effect). The mutant showed significantly faster root growth in all cases (Fig. 4a, b; for no sucrose: t-test, P <0.001 day 8, 64 df). Although the different germination characteristics meant that fewer fft-1 seeds were viable than WT seeds, the difference in mean rate of root growth developed after day 3–4 ps (when all viable seeds had successfully germinated) and continued to develop, suggesting that faster germination was not the primary cause of the root growth phenotype. The growth rate of fft-1 up to 2 weeks was greater under all conditions tested, including cold (4 °C) and higher intensity light (250 μmol m−2 s−1).

Bottom Line: Mutant analysis demonstrates that the absence of FFT transcript affects flavonoid levels in the plant and that the altered flavonoid metabolism has wide-ranging consequences.Root growth, seed development and germination, and pollen development, release and viability are all affected.Thus, as well as adding FFT to the incompletely described flavonoid transport network, it is found that correct reproductive development in Arabidopsis is perturbed when this particular transporter is missing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK.

ABSTRACT
FLOWER FLAVONOID TRANSPORTER (FFT) encodes a multidrug and toxin efflux family transporter in Arabidopsis thaliana. FFT (AtDTX35) is highly transcribed in floral tissues, the transcript being localized to epidermal guard cells, including those of the anthers, stigma, siliques and nectaries. Mutant analysis demonstrates that the absence of FFT transcript affects flavonoid levels in the plant and that the altered flavonoid metabolism has wide-ranging consequences. Root growth, seed development and germination, and pollen development, release and viability are all affected. Spectrometry of mutant versus wild-type flowers shows altered levels of a glycosylated flavonol whereas anthocyanin seems unlikely to be the substrate as previously speculated. Thus, as well as adding FFT to the incompletely described flavonoid transport network, it is found that correct reproductive development in Arabidopsis is perturbed when this particular transporter is missing.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus