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Flower numbers, pod production, pollen viability, and pistil function are reduced and flower and pod abortion increased in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under terminal drought.

Fang X, Turner NC, Yan G, Li F, Siddique KH - J. Exp. Bot. (2009)

Bottom Line: Compared to well-watered (WW) controls, the WS treatment reduced flower production by about two-thirds.In the WW treatment, about 15% of the flowers aborted and 42% (Rupali) and 67% (Almaz) of the pods aborted, whereas in the WS treatment 37% and 56% of the flowers aborted and 54% and 73% of the pods aborted, resulting in seed yields of 33% and 15% of the yields in WW plants in Rupali and Almaz, respectively.It is concluded that, in addition to pod abortion, flower abortion is an important factor limiting yield in chickpea exposed to terminal drought and that water deficit impaired the function of the pistil/style more than the pollen.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Legumes in Mediterranean Agriculture, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Terminal drought during the reproductive stage is a major constraint to yield of chickpea in many regions of the world. Termination of watering (WS) during podding in a small-seeded desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivar, Rupali, and a large-seeded kabuli chickpea cultivar, Almaz, induced a decrease in predawn leaf water potential (LWP), in the rate of photosynthesis, and in stomatal conductance. Compared to well-watered (WW) controls, the WS treatment reduced flower production by about two-thirds. In the WW treatment, about 15% of the flowers aborted and 42% (Rupali) and 67% (Almaz) of the pods aborted, whereas in the WS treatment 37% and 56% of the flowers aborted and 54% and 73% of the pods aborted, resulting in seed yields of 33% and 15% of the yields in WW plants in Rupali and Almaz, respectively. In vitro pollen viability and germination in Rupali decreased by 50% and 89% in the WS treatment, and pollen germination decreased by 80% in vivo when pollen from a WS plant was placed on a stigma of a WW plant. While about 37% of the germinated pollen tubes from WW plants and 22% from the WS plants reached the ovary in the WW plants, less than 3% of pollen grains reached the ovary when pollen from either WS or WW plants was placed on a stigma of a WS plant. It is concluded that, in addition to pod abortion, flower abortion is an important factor limiting yield in chickpea exposed to terminal drought and that water deficit impaired the function of the pistil/style more than the pollen.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Percentage pollen viability (A), percentage pollen germination during 4 h culture in vitro (B), and percentage of germinated pollen tubes to reach the ovary after 24 h in hand-pollinated flowers in vivo (C) in Rupali chickpea in well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS) treatments. WW+WW, stigmas of WW plants pollinated with pollen from WW plants; WW+WS, stigmas of WW plants pollinated with pollen from WS plants, WS+WW, stigmas of WS plants pollinated with pollen from WW plants; WS+WS, stigmas of WS plants pollinated with pollen from WS plants. Days are from treatment imposition (Day 0=39 DAS) in Experiment 2. Values are means ±SE (n=10).
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fig7: Percentage pollen viability (A), percentage pollen germination during 4 h culture in vitro (B), and percentage of germinated pollen tubes to reach the ovary after 24 h in hand-pollinated flowers in vivo (C) in Rupali chickpea in well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS) treatments. WW+WW, stigmas of WW plants pollinated with pollen from WW plants; WW+WS, stigmas of WW plants pollinated with pollen from WS plants, WS+WW, stigmas of WS plants pollinated with pollen from WW plants; WS+WS, stigmas of WS plants pollinated with pollen from WS plants. Days are from treatment imposition (Day 0=39 DAS) in Experiment 2. Values are means ±SE (n=10).

Mentions: In Experiment 1, pollen viability in vitro was 79.4±3.1% and 82.3±5.2% in WW Rupali and WW Almaz, whereas the corresponding values were 51.3±2.7% when LWP was about –1.2 MPa in WS Rupali and 53.1±2.8% when LWP was about –2.5 MPa in WS Almaz. In Experiment 2, pollen viability in vitro of WW Rupali was similar to that in Experiment 1, and decreased to 42±3.4% in the WS treatment (Figs 6, 7A) when LWP was about –1.2 MPa (Fig. 1D). After 4 h incubation in vitro, 76–80% of pollen germinated in the WW treatment, while only 8–10% germinated in the WS treatment (Fig. 7B). The number of pollen grains that germinated in vivo on the stigma of hand-pollinated flowers was 12.9±0.65 in WW+WW, 2.48±0.61 in WW+WS, 3.10±1.12 in WS+WW, and 0.60±0.34 in WS+WS treatments. Thirty seven per cent of pollen tubes from pollen from WW plants placed on the stigmas of WW plants reached the ovary in 24 h, but this declined to 22% when pollen from WS plants was placed on the stigmas of a WW plant (Fig. 7C). However, when pollen from either WW or WS plants was placed on the stigmas of WS plants, the number of pollen tubes that reached the ovary was less than 3% (Figs 7C, 8).


Flower numbers, pod production, pollen viability, and pistil function are reduced and flower and pod abortion increased in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under terminal drought.

Fang X, Turner NC, Yan G, Li F, Siddique KH - J. Exp. Bot. (2009)

Percentage pollen viability (A), percentage pollen germination during 4 h culture in vitro (B), and percentage of germinated pollen tubes to reach the ovary after 24 h in hand-pollinated flowers in vivo (C) in Rupali chickpea in well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS) treatments. WW+WW, stigmas of WW plants pollinated with pollen from WW plants; WW+WS, stigmas of WW plants pollinated with pollen from WS plants, WS+WW, stigmas of WS plants pollinated with pollen from WW plants; WS+WS, stigmas of WS plants pollinated with pollen from WS plants. Days are from treatment imposition (Day 0=39 DAS) in Experiment 2. Values are means ±SE (n=10).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2803204&req=5

fig7: Percentage pollen viability (A), percentage pollen germination during 4 h culture in vitro (B), and percentage of germinated pollen tubes to reach the ovary after 24 h in hand-pollinated flowers in vivo (C) in Rupali chickpea in well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS) treatments. WW+WW, stigmas of WW plants pollinated with pollen from WW plants; WW+WS, stigmas of WW plants pollinated with pollen from WS plants, WS+WW, stigmas of WS plants pollinated with pollen from WW plants; WS+WS, stigmas of WS plants pollinated with pollen from WS plants. Days are from treatment imposition (Day 0=39 DAS) in Experiment 2. Values are means ±SE (n=10).
Mentions: In Experiment 1, pollen viability in vitro was 79.4±3.1% and 82.3±5.2% in WW Rupali and WW Almaz, whereas the corresponding values were 51.3±2.7% when LWP was about –1.2 MPa in WS Rupali and 53.1±2.8% when LWP was about –2.5 MPa in WS Almaz. In Experiment 2, pollen viability in vitro of WW Rupali was similar to that in Experiment 1, and decreased to 42±3.4% in the WS treatment (Figs 6, 7A) when LWP was about –1.2 MPa (Fig. 1D). After 4 h incubation in vitro, 76–80% of pollen germinated in the WW treatment, while only 8–10% germinated in the WS treatment (Fig. 7B). The number of pollen grains that germinated in vivo on the stigma of hand-pollinated flowers was 12.9±0.65 in WW+WW, 2.48±0.61 in WW+WS, 3.10±1.12 in WS+WW, and 0.60±0.34 in WS+WS treatments. Thirty seven per cent of pollen tubes from pollen from WW plants placed on the stigmas of WW plants reached the ovary in 24 h, but this declined to 22% when pollen from WS plants was placed on the stigmas of a WW plant (Fig. 7C). However, when pollen from either WW or WS plants was placed on the stigmas of WS plants, the number of pollen tubes that reached the ovary was less than 3% (Figs 7C, 8).

Bottom Line: Compared to well-watered (WW) controls, the WS treatment reduced flower production by about two-thirds.In the WW treatment, about 15% of the flowers aborted and 42% (Rupali) and 67% (Almaz) of the pods aborted, whereas in the WS treatment 37% and 56% of the flowers aborted and 54% and 73% of the pods aborted, resulting in seed yields of 33% and 15% of the yields in WW plants in Rupali and Almaz, respectively.It is concluded that, in addition to pod abortion, flower abortion is an important factor limiting yield in chickpea exposed to terminal drought and that water deficit impaired the function of the pistil/style more than the pollen.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Legumes in Mediterranean Agriculture, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Terminal drought during the reproductive stage is a major constraint to yield of chickpea in many regions of the world. Termination of watering (WS) during podding in a small-seeded desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivar, Rupali, and a large-seeded kabuli chickpea cultivar, Almaz, induced a decrease in predawn leaf water potential (LWP), in the rate of photosynthesis, and in stomatal conductance. Compared to well-watered (WW) controls, the WS treatment reduced flower production by about two-thirds. In the WW treatment, about 15% of the flowers aborted and 42% (Rupali) and 67% (Almaz) of the pods aborted, whereas in the WS treatment 37% and 56% of the flowers aborted and 54% and 73% of the pods aborted, resulting in seed yields of 33% and 15% of the yields in WW plants in Rupali and Almaz, respectively. In vitro pollen viability and germination in Rupali decreased by 50% and 89% in the WS treatment, and pollen germination decreased by 80% in vivo when pollen from a WS plant was placed on a stigma of a WW plant. While about 37% of the germinated pollen tubes from WW plants and 22% from the WS plants reached the ovary in the WW plants, less than 3% of pollen grains reached the ovary when pollen from either WS or WW plants was placed on a stigma of a WS plant. It is concluded that, in addition to pod abortion, flower abortion is an important factor limiting yield in chickpea exposed to terminal drought and that water deficit impaired the function of the pistil/style more than the pollen.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus