Limits...
Antioxidant Activity and Lipid-Lowering Effect of Essential Oils Extracted from Ocimum sanctum L. Leaves in Rats Fed with a High Cholesterol Diet.

Suanarunsawat T, Devakul Na Ayutthaya W, Songsak T, Thirawarapan S, Poungshompoo S - J Clin Biochem Nutr (2009)

Bottom Line: In addition, EO was found to decrease the high levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) without impacting catalase (CAT) in the cardiac tissue while in the liver, it decreased high level of TBARS without significantly effecting GPx, SOD and CAT.Histopathological results confirmed that EO preserved the myocardial tissue.Eugenol that is contained in EO likely contribute to these pharmacological effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Physiology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Rangsit University, Pathumtani, 12000 Thailand.

ABSTRACT
It has been reported that Ocimum sanctum L. (OS) leaves decrease serum lipid profile in normal and diabetic animals. No experimental evidences support the anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidative actions against hypercholesterolemia. Moreover the identity of the specific chemical ingredients in OS leaves responsible for these pharmacological effects are unknown. Since OS leaves are rich in essential oil (EO). Therefore the present study was conducted to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidative activities of EO extracted from OS leaves in rats fed with high cholesterol (HC) diet. EO was extracted by the hydrodistillation method and the chemical constituents were then identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The experiment was performed in Male Wistar rats fed with 2.5 g%(w/w) of cholesterol diet for seven weeks. During the last 3 weeks, rats were daily fed with EO. The results showed that phenyl propanoid compounds including eugenol and methyl eugenol were the major constituents of EO. EO suppressed the high serum lipid profile and atherogenic index as well as serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase MB subunit without significant effect on high serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase in rats fed with HC diet. In addition, EO was found to decrease the high levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) without impacting catalase (CAT) in the cardiac tissue while in the liver, it decreased high level of TBARS without significantly effecting GPx, SOD and CAT. Histopathological results confirmed that EO preserved the myocardial tissue. It can be concluded that EO extracted from OS leaves has lipid-lowering and antioxidative effects that protect the heart against hypercholesterolemia. Eugenol that is contained in EO likely contribute to these pharmacological effects.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Histopathological appearance of liver (H&E ×400). Normal hepatocyte had the round nucleus centrally (arrows), the flat endothelial cells (arrow-heads) are around the central vein (CV) (A). Diffuse vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes (arrows) and markedly focal fibrosis (arrow-head) were shown in HC rat (B). Hepatic cells of HC rat treated with EO (C), periacinar vacuolar cytoplasmic degeneration (arrows), 1–2 hepatocyte rows around central vein demonstrated hepatic cell degeneration and necrosis (arrow-head). Less injury of endothelium and less fat vacuole comparing to HC rat. HC, high cholesterol; EO, essential oil.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2803133&req=5

Figure 2: Histopathological appearance of liver (H&E ×400). Normal hepatocyte had the round nucleus centrally (arrows), the flat endothelial cells (arrow-heads) are around the central vein (CV) (A). Diffuse vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes (arrows) and markedly focal fibrosis (arrow-head) were shown in HC rat (B). Hepatic cells of HC rat treated with EO (C), periacinar vacuolar cytoplasmic degeneration (arrows), 1–2 hepatocyte rows around central vein demonstrated hepatic cell degeneration and necrosis (arrow-head). Less injury of endothelium and less fat vacuole comparing to HC rat. HC, high cholesterol; EO, essential oil.

Mentions: From the histopathological analysis, the normal hepatocyte had the round nucleus centrally and homogeneous cytoplasm (Fig. 2A). There are flat endothelial cells around central vein and sinusoid. The hepatic cord arrangement as a regular ray pattern was also seen in normal hepatocyte. The hepatocytes from HC rats showed diffused vacuolar degeneration and necrosis (loss of nucleus) which indicated that the cells were severely deteriorated (Fig. 2B). Endothelial lining of the central vein exhibited more cell injury with an increased accumulation of fat vacuoles in the hepatocytes. Hepatic cells did not recover or improve with EO usage even though there were fewer endothelium injuries and vacuole buildup (Fig. 2C). Myocardiocyte of normal rats had oval-elongate nucleus centrally and homogeneous cytoplasm (Fig. 3A). The HC rats exhibited a moderate dilation and thinning of the right ventricle wall with mild cardiac hypertrophy of the left ventricle. Furthermore, multi-focal vacuolar degeneration and necrosis or apoptosis were seen in the myocardial cells (Fig. 3B). In contrast, myocardial cell of HC rat treated with EO revealed normal general appearance (Fig. 3C).


Antioxidant Activity and Lipid-Lowering Effect of Essential Oils Extracted from Ocimum sanctum L. Leaves in Rats Fed with a High Cholesterol Diet.

Suanarunsawat T, Devakul Na Ayutthaya W, Songsak T, Thirawarapan S, Poungshompoo S - J Clin Biochem Nutr (2009)

Histopathological appearance of liver (H&E ×400). Normal hepatocyte had the round nucleus centrally (arrows), the flat endothelial cells (arrow-heads) are around the central vein (CV) (A). Diffuse vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes (arrows) and markedly focal fibrosis (arrow-head) were shown in HC rat (B). Hepatic cells of HC rat treated with EO (C), periacinar vacuolar cytoplasmic degeneration (arrows), 1–2 hepatocyte rows around central vein demonstrated hepatic cell degeneration and necrosis (arrow-head). Less injury of endothelium and less fat vacuole comparing to HC rat. HC, high cholesterol; EO, essential oil.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2803133&req=5

Figure 2: Histopathological appearance of liver (H&E ×400). Normal hepatocyte had the round nucleus centrally (arrows), the flat endothelial cells (arrow-heads) are around the central vein (CV) (A). Diffuse vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes (arrows) and markedly focal fibrosis (arrow-head) were shown in HC rat (B). Hepatic cells of HC rat treated with EO (C), periacinar vacuolar cytoplasmic degeneration (arrows), 1–2 hepatocyte rows around central vein demonstrated hepatic cell degeneration and necrosis (arrow-head). Less injury of endothelium and less fat vacuole comparing to HC rat. HC, high cholesterol; EO, essential oil.
Mentions: From the histopathological analysis, the normal hepatocyte had the round nucleus centrally and homogeneous cytoplasm (Fig. 2A). There are flat endothelial cells around central vein and sinusoid. The hepatic cord arrangement as a regular ray pattern was also seen in normal hepatocyte. The hepatocytes from HC rats showed diffused vacuolar degeneration and necrosis (loss of nucleus) which indicated that the cells were severely deteriorated (Fig. 2B). Endothelial lining of the central vein exhibited more cell injury with an increased accumulation of fat vacuoles in the hepatocytes. Hepatic cells did not recover or improve with EO usage even though there were fewer endothelium injuries and vacuole buildup (Fig. 2C). Myocardiocyte of normal rats had oval-elongate nucleus centrally and homogeneous cytoplasm (Fig. 3A). The HC rats exhibited a moderate dilation and thinning of the right ventricle wall with mild cardiac hypertrophy of the left ventricle. Furthermore, multi-focal vacuolar degeneration and necrosis or apoptosis were seen in the myocardial cells (Fig. 3B). In contrast, myocardial cell of HC rat treated with EO revealed normal general appearance (Fig. 3C).

Bottom Line: In addition, EO was found to decrease the high levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) without impacting catalase (CAT) in the cardiac tissue while in the liver, it decreased high level of TBARS without significantly effecting GPx, SOD and CAT.Histopathological results confirmed that EO preserved the myocardial tissue.Eugenol that is contained in EO likely contribute to these pharmacological effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Physiology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Rangsit University, Pathumtani, 12000 Thailand.

ABSTRACT
It has been reported that Ocimum sanctum L. (OS) leaves decrease serum lipid profile in normal and diabetic animals. No experimental evidences support the anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidative actions against hypercholesterolemia. Moreover the identity of the specific chemical ingredients in OS leaves responsible for these pharmacological effects are unknown. Since OS leaves are rich in essential oil (EO). Therefore the present study was conducted to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidative activities of EO extracted from OS leaves in rats fed with high cholesterol (HC) diet. EO was extracted by the hydrodistillation method and the chemical constituents were then identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The experiment was performed in Male Wistar rats fed with 2.5 g%(w/w) of cholesterol diet for seven weeks. During the last 3 weeks, rats were daily fed with EO. The results showed that phenyl propanoid compounds including eugenol and methyl eugenol were the major constituents of EO. EO suppressed the high serum lipid profile and atherogenic index as well as serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase MB subunit without significant effect on high serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase in rats fed with HC diet. In addition, EO was found to decrease the high levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) without impacting catalase (CAT) in the cardiac tissue while in the liver, it decreased high level of TBARS without significantly effecting GPx, SOD and CAT. Histopathological results confirmed that EO preserved the myocardial tissue. It can be concluded that EO extracted from OS leaves has lipid-lowering and antioxidative effects that protect the heart against hypercholesterolemia. Eugenol that is contained in EO likely contribute to these pharmacological effects.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus