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Smoking, an additional risk factor in elder women with primary open-angle glaucoma.

Zanon-Moreno V, Garcia-Medina JJ, Zanon-Viguer V, Moreno-Nadal MA, Pinazo-Duran MD - Mol. Vis. (2009)

Bottom Line: Some authors refer to it as the "silent epidemic of the 20th century." It constitutes an important risk factor for ocular pathologies such as age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), diabetic retinopathy, and neuropathy because the toxic effects of tobacco play a key role in the deterioration of eye tissue.IL-6, caspase-3, and PARP-1 levels were significantly higher in the smoker women who smoked than in the ex-smoker and non-smoker glaucomatous groups of the same gender (p<0,05).Smoking could be an important additional risk factor for glaucoma progression in elderly women.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biomedical Research Center, Dr. Peset University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. zanon_vicmor@gva.es

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Smoking is a serious public health problem worldwide. Some authors refer to it as the "silent epidemic of the 20th century." It constitutes an important risk factor for ocular pathologies such as age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), diabetic retinopathy, and neuropathy because the toxic effects of tobacco play a key role in the deterioration of eye tissue. Damage to trabecular meshwork cells (TMC) and retinal ganglion cells (RGC), involving inflammation and apoptosis mechanisms, has been proved in glaucoma. The aim of this study was to determine whether smoking influences the progression of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in women.

Methods: This experimental study involved a sampling of consecutive cases of smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers women with POAG. One hundred and twenty women with POAG, aged 40-90 years, were enrolled (40 smokers, 40 ex-smokers and 40 non-smokers). Samples of aqueous humor (AH) and plasma from each subject were obtained at the beginning of the surgical procedures. Both inflammation and apoptosis processes in the subjects were studied by means of enzyme immunoassay and western blot procedures respectively. We analyzed the interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels as an inflammation marker and the expression of caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) as apoptosis markers.

Results: IL-6, caspase-3, and PARP-1 levels were significantly higher in the smoker women who smoked than in the ex-smoker and non-smoker glaucomatous groups of the same gender (p<0,05).

Conclusions: Inflammation and apoptosis marker levels increase with smoking in the aqueous humor and plasma samples of POAG women. Smoking could be an important additional risk factor for glaucoma progression in elderly women.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Caspase-3 levels (relative densitometric units – rdu) in aqueous humor and plasma samples of the study groups.
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f3: Caspase-3 levels (relative densitometric units – rdu) in aqueous humor and plasma samples of the study groups.

Mentions: Caspase-3 levels were significantly different between our study groups for both aqueous humor and plasma samples. The levels of caspase-3 were statistically higher in smokers than in ex-smokers and non-smokers. In the aqueous humor, the caspase-3 levels were higher in the ex-smoker group than in the non-smoker group. However, the plasmatic caspase-3 levels were higher in the non-smoker group than in the ex-smoker group. For both aqueous humor and plasma samples, differences between the ex-smoker and non-smoker groups were not significant (Figure 3).


Smoking, an additional risk factor in elder women with primary open-angle glaucoma.

Zanon-Moreno V, Garcia-Medina JJ, Zanon-Viguer V, Moreno-Nadal MA, Pinazo-Duran MD - Mol. Vis. (2009)

Caspase-3 levels (relative densitometric units – rdu) in aqueous humor and plasma samples of the study groups.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2802290&req=5

f3: Caspase-3 levels (relative densitometric units – rdu) in aqueous humor and plasma samples of the study groups.
Mentions: Caspase-3 levels were significantly different between our study groups for both aqueous humor and plasma samples. The levels of caspase-3 were statistically higher in smokers than in ex-smokers and non-smokers. In the aqueous humor, the caspase-3 levels were higher in the ex-smoker group than in the non-smoker group. However, the plasmatic caspase-3 levels were higher in the non-smoker group than in the ex-smoker group. For both aqueous humor and plasma samples, differences between the ex-smoker and non-smoker groups were not significant (Figure 3).

Bottom Line: Some authors refer to it as the "silent epidemic of the 20th century." It constitutes an important risk factor for ocular pathologies such as age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), diabetic retinopathy, and neuropathy because the toxic effects of tobacco play a key role in the deterioration of eye tissue.IL-6, caspase-3, and PARP-1 levels were significantly higher in the smoker women who smoked than in the ex-smoker and non-smoker glaucomatous groups of the same gender (p<0,05).Smoking could be an important additional risk factor for glaucoma progression in elderly women.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biomedical Research Center, Dr. Peset University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. zanon_vicmor@gva.es

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Smoking is a serious public health problem worldwide. Some authors refer to it as the "silent epidemic of the 20th century." It constitutes an important risk factor for ocular pathologies such as age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), diabetic retinopathy, and neuropathy because the toxic effects of tobacco play a key role in the deterioration of eye tissue. Damage to trabecular meshwork cells (TMC) and retinal ganglion cells (RGC), involving inflammation and apoptosis mechanisms, has been proved in glaucoma. The aim of this study was to determine whether smoking influences the progression of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in women.

Methods: This experimental study involved a sampling of consecutive cases of smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers women with POAG. One hundred and twenty women with POAG, aged 40-90 years, were enrolled (40 smokers, 40 ex-smokers and 40 non-smokers). Samples of aqueous humor (AH) and plasma from each subject were obtained at the beginning of the surgical procedures. Both inflammation and apoptosis processes in the subjects were studied by means of enzyme immunoassay and western blot procedures respectively. We analyzed the interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels as an inflammation marker and the expression of caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) as apoptosis markers.

Results: IL-6, caspase-3, and PARP-1 levels were significantly higher in the smoker women who smoked than in the ex-smoker and non-smoker glaucomatous groups of the same gender (p<0,05).

Conclusions: Inflammation and apoptosis marker levels increase with smoking in the aqueous humor and plasma samples of POAG women. Smoking could be an important additional risk factor for glaucoma progression in elderly women.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus